Question 79 - (a) The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. Let SG = specific gravity of petroleum liquid, and V = barrels of crude oil per metric ton. Given the formula for API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 and V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159), find the relationship of SG as a function of V. (b) An oil barrel is about 159 litres. If a cylinder with diameter d = 50 cm and height h = 50 cm is used to contain the oil, find the volume V of the cylinder in the unit of oil barrel by using the formula V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4. (c) First reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels. Second reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.37 oil barrels. What are the 2 factors that cause the difference in such reference data?
Answer 79 - (a) Substitute API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 into V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159) will produce V = (141.5 / SG - 131.5 + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159) = 1 / (0.159 SG). Then SG = 1 / (0.159 V). (b) Let V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4 = 3.142 x 50 x 50 x 50 / 4 = 98187.5 cubic centimetres = 98.1875 litres = 98.1875 litres x (1 oil barrel / 159 litres) = 0.6175 oil barrel approximately. (c) Oil density and temperature. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.
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CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.4 : Calculate the bubble temperature T at P = 85-kPa for a binary liquid with x(1) = 0.4. The liquid solution is ideal. The saturation pressures are Psat(1) = exp [ 14.3 - 2945 / (T + 224) ], Psat(2) = exp [ 14.2 - 2943 / (T + 209) ] where T is in degree Celsius. Please take note that x(1) + x(2) = 1. Please take note that y(1) + y(2) = 1, y(1) = [ x(1) * Psat(1) ] / P, y(2) = [ x(2) * Psat(2) ] / P, * is multiplication. P is in kPa.
Question 58 – In the design of a solar power system steps of calculations below are followed : (a) The power output of the inverter of the of the solar panel is 100 watts. What is the power input, Pin to the inverter when the efficiency of the inverter is 50 %? (b) If the rated power of the inverter is 300 watts, how many inverter is needed for the solar panel? (c) Charge controller of V = 12 volts is used to supply power to the inverter. What is the input current I to the inverter? (d) If the charge controller capacity is 10 A, how many charge controllers are needed? (e) If a biochemical mixer consumes 100 watts, running for 2 hours per day, what is the energy consumption in kilowatt hour per day? (f) What is the input energy needed when the efficiency of the inverter is 50 %? (g) If your area receives 2.88 hours of full sunlight per day, how much energy, in kilowatt hour can be produced per day when one solar panel can produce 20 watts of power? (h) If you know that you have to produce total energy as the answer for (f), how many solar panels are needed? (i) Each V = 12 V battery has 5 ampere hours. If the total energy needed is in answer (f), then how many batteries are needed to run the biochemical mixer if without sunlight for 3 days?
Input the Roll Number, Name and marks of a small section of 5 students. Display the marks database of these students in the following format. The "Roll Number" and "Name" fields are left justified with 15 columns, and 25 columns, respectively. The "Marks" field is right justified with 5 columns. Assume the marks are in multiples of 0.5 and are from 0 to 100. Display some spaces between each field appropriately. Roll Number 11001 11050 11081 11225 Y2367 Name FIRST NAME LAST NAME FIRSTNAME2 LASTNAME2 I1. I2. FIRSTNAME3 FIRSTNAME4 M1. LASTNAME4 FIRSTNAME5 MID LASTNAME5 Marks 95 80 88 77.5 89.5 The input can be stored in a file, say, marksdata.txt, and the program can be executed by using ./a.out < marksdata.txt
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THERMODYNAMIC - EXAMPLE 10.2 : A cylinder with a movable piston contains 0.1 mole of a monoatomic ideal gas. The piston moves through state a, b and c. The heat Q, changes from state c to a is + 685 J. The work W, changes from state c to a is - 120 J. The work, W performed from state a to b then to c is 75 J. By using the first law of thermodynamic, U = Q + W where U is the internal energy : (a) Determine the change in internal energy between states a and c. (b) Is heat added or removed from the gas when the gas is taken along the path abc? (c) Calculate the heat added or removed when the gas is taken along the path abc?
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