Question 79 - (a) The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. Let SG = specific gravity of petroleum liquid, and V = barrels of crude oil per metric ton. Given the formula for API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 and V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159), find the relationship of SG as a function of V. (b) An oil barrel is about 159 litres. If a cylinder with diameter d = 50 cm and height h = 50 cm is used to contain the oil, find the volume V of the cylinder in the unit of oil barrel by using the formula V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4. (c) First reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels. Second reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.37 oil barrels. What are the 2 factors that cause the difference in such reference data?
Answer 79 - (a) Substitute API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 into V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159) will produce V = (141.5 / SG - 131.5 + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159) = 1 / (0.159 SG). Then SG = 1 / (0.159 V). (b) Let V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4 = 3.142 x 50 x 50 x 50 / 4 = 98187.5 cubic centimetres = 98.1875 litres = 98.1875 litres x (1 oil barrel / 159 litres) = 0.6175 oil barrel approximately. (c) Oil density and temperature. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; chuentat@hotmail.com; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.
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CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.4 : Calculate the bubble temperature T at P = 85-kPa for a binary liquid with x(1) = 0.4. The liquid solution is ideal. The saturation pressures are Psat(1) = exp [ 14.3 - 2945 / (T + 224) ], Psat(2) = exp [ 14.2 - 2943 / (T + 209) ] where T is in degree Celsius. Please take note that x(1) + x(2) = 1. Please take note that y(1) + y(2) = 1, y(1) = [ x(1) * Psat(1) ] / P, y(2) = [ x(2) * Psat(2) ] / P, * is multiplication. P is in kPa.
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