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Question 81 - (a) In natural gas pipe sizing, the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the farthest appliances is 60 feet. The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 60 feet in length are : 66 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 138 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 260 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the longest run method : (i) Find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour. (ii) Estimate the suitable range of capacities for the pipe size of 1 inch. (b) The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 50 feet in length are : 73 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 151 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 285 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the branch method find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour when the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the appliance is 52 feet.

Question 81 - (a) In natural gas pipe sizing, the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to th..

Answer 81 - (a)(i) Best pipe size needed = 0.75 inches for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour. Data for a metallic pipe of 60 feet in length and maximum capacity of 138 cubic feet per hour instead of 66 cubic feet per hour are selected. (ii) Range is more than 138 but less than or equal to 260 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. (b) Best pipe size needed = 0.75 inches for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour. Data for a metallic pipe of 60 feet in length instead of 50 feet and maximum capacity of 138 cubic feet per hour instead of 66 cubic feet per hour are selected. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; chuentat@hotmail.com; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.

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Question 78 - Fact 1 : Dry air contains 20.95 % oxygen, 78.09 % nitrogen, 0.93 % argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases by volume. Fact 2 : Volume occupied is directly proportional to the number of moles for ideal gases at constant temperature and pressure. Fact 3 : 12.5 moles of pure oxygen is required to completely burn 1 mole of pure octane. Fact 4 : Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of dry air to fuel present in a combustion process such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace. Fact 5 : Molecular weight of oxygen gas is 31.998 g / mole and molecular weight of nitrogen gas is 28.014 g / mole. (a) Find the molar ratio of nitrogen and oxygen, or (moles of nitrogen) / (moles of oxygen) in dry air, by assuming ideal features of nitrogen and oxygen gases. (b) How many moles of nitrogen are available if dry air is used to completely burn the 1 mole pure octane? (c) Find the mass of fuel of 1 mole of octane with molecular weight of 114.232 g / mole. (d) Find the mass of dry air with 12.5 moles of pure oxygen by assuming only oxygen and nitrogen gases exist in the air. (e) Find the air-fuel ratio (AFR) when octane is used as fuel. (f) Find the fuel-air ratio (FAR) when octane is used as fuel.

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