REACTION ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 13.2 : A batch reactor is designed for the system of the irreversible, elementary liquid-phase hydration of butylene oxide that produces butylene glycol. At the reaction temperature T = 323 K, the reaction rate constant is k = 0.00083 L / (mol - min). The initial concentration of butylene oxide is 0.25 mol / L = Ca. The reaction is conducted using water as the solvent, so that water is in large excess. (a) Let the molecular weight of water is 18 g / mol and the mass of 1 kg in 1 L of water, calculate the molar density of water, Cb in the unit of mol / L. (b) Determine the final conversion, X of butylene oxide in the batch reactor after t = 45 min of reaction time. Use the formula X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] derived from material balance. (c) Find the equation of t as a function of X.
REACTION ENGINEERING - ANSWER 13.2 : (a) Cb = (1000 g / L) / (18 g / mol) = 55.556 mol / L. (b) X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] = 1 - 1 / exp (0.00083 x 45 x 55.556) = 0.8744. (c) X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ], 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] = 1 - X, exp [ kt (Cb) ] = 1 / (1 - X), (Cb) kt = ln [ 1 / (1 - X) ], t = 1 / [ k (Cb) ] ln [ 1 / (1 - X) ] = ln [ 1 / (1 - X) ] / [ k (Cb) ]. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.
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UNIT OPERATION - EXAMPLE 9.4 : Acetone and ethanol are separated using a distillation column with a partial condenser and partial reboiler. An equimolar, sub-cooled liquid feed enters at 100 kmol / hr and condenses 1 mole of vapor for every 6 moles of feed. The separation requires a distillate vapor that is 95 mol % acetone and bottoms liquid that is 5 mol % acetone. The reflux is returned from the condenser to the column as a saturated liquid and the operation is run at (L / V) = 1.4 * (L / V) min. Assume constant overflow conditions. (a) Feed operating line is y = [ q / (q - 1) ] x - z / (q - 1) where z = 0.5 for equimolar liquid mixture of 2 components, q = (L'- L) / F where L' = L + F + (F / 6) for condensation of 1 mole of vapor / 6 moles of feed. What is y = f(x)? (b) The rectifying operating line is y = (L / V) x + (D / V) (xd) where (L / V) min goes through the points A (0.95, 0.95) and B (0.53, 0.69), V = L + D. What is y = f(x)? Let xd = 0.95. (L / V) min is the slope of the 2 points A and B.
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ENGINEERING DRAWING - EXAMPLE 18.1 : For a Vernier scale of representative fraction (RF) = 1 / 25, calculate the length of the scale for the reading up to 4 metres.
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ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 34.6 : In a random walk, a stochastic process starts off with a score of A. This is a score for a chemical engineering test. At each discrete event, there is probability p chance you will increase your score by B and a (1 - p) chance you will decrease your score by C. The event happens T times. Let D = expected value of score. (a) Form an equation of D as a function of A, B, C, T and p. (b) Find the value of D if A = 60, B = 1, C = -1, T = 50, p = 0.5.
QUANTUM COMPUTING - EXAMPLE 32.6 : (a) Let H | 0 > = 0.707 ( | 0 > + | 1 > ), H | 1 > = 0.707 ( | 0 > - | 1 > ). Find the values for H | 0 > + H | 1 > and H | 0 > - H | 1 >. (b) In quantum computing, a qubyte is a quantum byte, or 8 quantum bits, a sequence processed as a unit. A qubit is a quantum bit. According to Alexander Holevo in his theorem, n qubits cannot carry more than n classical bits of information. What is the maximum amount of classical bits of information that can be carried by 1 qubyte.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - QUESTION 22.3 : A well delivers 225 US-gallons per minute of water to a chemical plant during normal system operation. (a) Calculate its flowrate in the unit of mega US-gallon per day or MGD. (b) The following formula is written next to the chlorine feed point : (chlorine feed rate, lb / day) = (flowrate, MGD) X (dose, mg / L) x (8.34). If this formula is correct, then what should the chlorine feed rate to be in pounds per day (lb / day) if the desired dose is 2 mg / L. (c) Prove by calculations that the constant 8.34 in the formula next to the chlorine feed point is correct. Let 1 US-gallon = 3.78541 L and 1 mg = 0.0000022046 pound.
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