Please colleagues I need to choice a proper hopper shape for a Fertilizer bulk blender flowing throut a high humidity raw material like zeolite, so we are in doubt whether use squard or rectangular hopper shape to avoid the so call voul effect that can create obstruction788
Question 79 - (a) The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. Let SG = specific gravity of petroleum liquid, and V = barrels of crude oil per metric ton. Given the formula for API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 and V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159), find the relationship of SG as a function of V. (b) An oil barrel is about 159 litres. If a cylinder with diameter d = 50 cm and height h = 50 cm is used to contain the oil, find the volume V of the cylinder in the unit of oil barrel by using the formula V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4. (c) First reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels. Second reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.37 oil barrels. What are the 2 factors that cause the difference in such reference data?1 1569
CHEMICAL MATERIAL BALANCE – EXAMPLE 2.6 : According to Raoult's law for ideal liquid, x (PSAT) = yP where x is mole fraction of component in liquid, y is mole fraction of component in vapor, P is overall pressure and PSAT is saturation pressure. A liquid with 60 mole % component 1 and 40 mole % component 2 is flashed to 1210 kPa. The saturation pressure for component 1 is ln (PSAT) = 15 - 3010 / (T + 250) and for component 2 is ln (PSAT) = 14 - 2700 / (T + 205) where PSAT is in kPa and T is in degree Celsius. By assuming the liquid is ideal, calculate (a) the fraction of the effluent that is liquid; (b) the compositions of the liquid and vapor phases. The outlet T is 150 degree Celsius.1 1144
CHEMICAL FLUID MECHANIC - EXAMPLE 3.1 : Water flows through a pipe with circular cross sectional area at the rate of V / t = 80 L / s where V is the volume and t is time. Let Av = 80 L / s where A is cross sectional area and v is velocity of fluid. For point 1, the radius of the pipe is 16 cm. For point 2, the radius of the pipe is 8 cm. Find (a) the velocity at point 1; (b) the velocity at point 2; (c) the pressure at point 2 by using Bernoulli's equation where P + Rgy + 0.5 RV = constant. P is the pressure, R = density of fluid, V = square of fluid's velocity, g = gravitational constant of 9.81 N / kg and y = 2 m = difference of height at 2 points. The pressure of point 1 is 180 kPa.1 1119
Question 80 - Liquid octane has a density of 703 kilograms per cubic metre and molar mass of 114.23 grams per mole. Its specific heat capacity is 255.68 J / (mol K). (a) Find the energy in J needed to increase the temperature of 1 cubic metre of octane for 1 Kelvin. (b) At 20 degree Celsius, the solubility of liquid octane in water is 0.007 mg / L as stated in a handbook. For a mixture of 1 L of liquid octane and 1 L of water, prove by calculations that liquid octane is almost insoluble in water.1 1575
CHEMICAL FLUID MECHANIC - EXAMPLE 3.2 : The terminal velocity of a falling object, v is given by v = sqrt [ 4g (R - r) D / (3Cr) ] where sqrt is the square root of, g = 9.81, D = 0.000208, R = 1800, r = 994.6, m = 0.000893. The Reynold number, L is given by L = rD (v) / m. The C for various conditions are : C = 24 / L for L < 0.1; C = 24 (1 + 0.14 L^0.7) / L for 0.1 <= L <= 1000; C = 0.44 for 1000 < L <= 350000; C = 0.19 - 80000 / L for 350000 < L. Find the value of v for the situation above by trial and error, ^ is power, <= is less than or equal to.1 1828
CHEMICAL FLUID MECHANIC - EXAMPLE 3.3 : The drag coefficient Cd = 0.05 and lift coefficient Cl = 0.4 for a levelled flow aircraft are measured. The velocity of the aircraft is v = 150 ft / s with its weight W = 2677.5 pound-force. (a) Find the value of the lift of the aircraft, L, when it is also its weight. (b) The drag of the aircraft, D = Cd M, L = Cl M. Find the value of D. (c) The power required is P = Dv. If 1 pound-force x (ft / s) = 1.356 W, find the value of P in the unit of Watt or W.1 1124
Question 81 - (a) In natural gas pipe sizing, the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the farthest appliances is 60 feet. The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 60 feet in length are : 66 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 138 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 260 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the longest run method : (i) Find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour. (ii) Estimate the suitable range of capacities for the pipe size of 1 inch. (b) The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 50 feet in length are : 73 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 151 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 285 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the branch method find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour when the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the appliance is 52 feet.1 1085
Question 82 - (a) The Hyperion sewage plant in Los Angeles burns 8 million cubic feet of natural gas per day to generate power in United States of America. If 1 metre = 3.28084 feet, then how many cubic metres of such gas is burnt per hour? (b) A reservoir of natural gas produces 50 mole % methane and 50 mole % ethane. At zero degree Celsius and one atmosphere, the density of methane gas is 0.716 g / L and the density of ethane gas is 1.3562 mg / (cubic cm). The molar mass of methane is 16.04 g / mol and molar mass of ethane is 30.07 g / mol. (i) Find the mass % of methane and ethane in the natural gas. (ii) Find the average density of the natural gas mixture in the reservoir at zero degree Celsius and one atmosphere, by assuming that the gases are ideal where final volume of the gas mixture is the sum of volume of the individual gases at constant temperature and pressure. (iii) Find the average density of the natural gas mixture in the reservoir at zero degree Celsius and one atmosphere, by assuming that the final mass of the gas mixture is the sum of mass of the individual gases. Assume the gases are ideal where mole % = volume % at constant pressure and temperature.1 1110
MASS TRANSFER - EXAMPLE 4.1 : A concentric, counter-current heat exchanger is used to cool lubricating oil. Water is used as the coolant. The mass flow rate of oil into the heat exchanger is 0.1 kg / s = FO. For oil, the inlet temperature TIO = 100 degree Celsius and the outlet temperature TOO = 55 degree Celsius. For water, the inlet temperature TIW = 35 degree Celsius and the outlet temperature TOW = 42 degree Celsius. What is the mass flow rate of water in kg / s, FW needed to maintain these operating conditions? Constant for heat capacity of oil is CO = 2131 J /(kg K) and for water is CW = 4178 J /(kg K). Use the equation (FO)(CO)(TIO ?TOO) = (FW)(CW)(TOW ?TIW).1 1063
MASS TRANSFER - EXAMPLE 4.2 : In a non-dilute absorber, graphical method is used to represent the process. In an X - Y coordinate system, X-axis represents mole of carbon dioxide / mole of water and Y axis represents mole of carbon dioxide / mole of nitrogen. The inlet gas stream consists of 8 mol % of carbon dioxide in nitrogen. (a) Find the S / G minimum as a slope that goes through the point (0, 0.0304) and (0.0000488, 0.086957). (b) Find the actual slope of operating line when it is 1.5 times the S / G minimum! (c) Find the value of x for inlet gas stream when y = 1640 x, y is mole fraction of carbon dioxide in nitrogen.1 1048
Question 83 - The United States of America Energy Information Administration reports the following emissions in million metric tons of carbon dioxide in the world for year 2012 : Natural gas : 6799, petroleum : 11695, coal : 13787. Coal-fired electric power generation emits around 2000 pounds of carbon dioxide for every megawatt hour generated, which is almost double the carbon dioxide released by a natural gas-fired electric plant per megawatt hour generated. If 1 metric ton = 1000 kg and 1 pound = 0.4536 kg, estimate the total energy generated by natural gas in the world for year 2012, in gigawatt hour.1 1096
MASS TRANSFER - EXAMPLE 4.3 : According to Adolf Eugen Fick (1829 - 1901) : rate of diffusion v increases with less wall thickness t, increased area A and decreased molecular weight of a fluid M. The diffusion constant D decreased with increasing M. (a) By assuming v, t, dP, A, M and D changes proportionally of each other, find the equation of v as a function of t, dP, A and D. (b) The ratio of self diffusion constant D, at T = 273 K and P = 0.1 MPa, for gases B and C are 1.604 : 0.155. If only 2 gases exist in such a system : hydrogen and nitrogen, find the type of gas for B and C with reference to their molecular weights M. (c) By using the equation of kinetic energy 0.5 MV = constant where V = square of v, find the ratio of V for B and V for C, or V(B) / V(C), as a function of M(B) and M(C), where M(B) is molecular weight of B and M(C) the molecular weight of C : Graham's Law of Diffusion.1 1048
Heat transfer: In a triple effect evaporator, the heat transfer for an evaporator is calculated as q = UA (TI - TF) where TI is the initial temperature, TF is the final temperature; U and A are constants. Given that heat transfer for the first evaporator : q(1) = UA (TI - TB); second evaporator : q(2) = UA (TB - TC); third evaporator : q(3) = UA (TC - TF) where q(x) is the heat transfer function, TB is the temperature of second inlet and TC is the temperature of third inlet, prove that the overall heat transfer Q = q(1) q(2) q(3) = UA (TI - TF).1 1122
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