Question 48 - Let a ^ 2 = a x a and a ^ 3 = a x a x a where ^ is power function. Niobium is a metal with a body-centered cubic structure. The length of the unit cell structure is b = 0.3349 nm. (a) Find the volume for a unit cell structure for niobium. (b) There are 2 atoms per unit cell structure of niobium. The metal has a molar mass of 92.9 g / mol. One mole of the metal consists of 6.02 x 10 ^ 23 atoms. Find the mass of niobium per unit cell and the density of niobium.1 1358
Question 49 - According to rules of thumb in chemical process design, consider the use of an expander for reducing the pressure of a gas when more than 20 horsepowers can be recovered. The theoretical adiabatic horsepower (THp) for expanding a gas could be estimated from the equation : THp = Q [ Ti / (8130a) ] [ 1 - (Po / Pi) ^ a ] where 3 ^ 3 is 3 power 3 or 27, Q is volumetric flowrate in standard cubic feet per minute, Ti is inlet temperature in degree Rankine, a = (k - 1) / k where k = Cp / Cv, Po and Pi are reference and systemic pressures respectively. (a) Assume Cp / Cv = 1.4, Po = 14.7 psia, (temperature in degree Rankine) = [ (temperature in degree Celsius) + 273.15 ] (9 / 5), nitrogen gas at Pi = 90 psia and 25 degree Celsius flowing at Q = 230 standard cubic feet per minute is to be vented to the atmosphere. According to rules of thumb, should an expander or a valve be used? (b) Find the outlet temperature To by using the equation To = Ti (Po / Pi) ^ a.1 1101
What is fuel requirement of 20kg/hr of incineration having material calorific value 6500 kcal/kg and diesel calorific value 10707 Kcal/Kg (PCC=850 degC and SCC 1050 Deg c)843
Question 50 - An aqueous solution with 2.5 g of a protein dissolved in 600 cubic centimeters of a solution at 20 degree Celsius was placed in a container that has a water-permeable membrane. Water permeated through the membrane until the h - level of the solution was 0.9 cm above the pure water. (a) Calculate the absolute temperature of the solution, T in Kelvin, where T (Kelvin) = T (degree Celsius) + 273.15. (b) Calculate the osmotic pressure, P of the solution by using the formula P = hrg where h is level of the solution, r is density of water with 1000 kg per cubic meter, g = 9.81 N / kg as gravitational acceleration. (c) Calculate the concentration of the protein solution, C in kg / cubic meter. (d) Calculate the molecular weight of the protein, (MW) = CRT / P where R = 8.314 Pa cubic meter / (mol K) as ideal gas constant.1 1245
Question 51 - A batch reactor is designed for the system of the irreversible, elementary liquid-phase hydration of butylene oxide that produces butylene glycol. At the reaction temperature T = 323 K, the reaction rate constant is k = 0.00083 L / (mol - min). The initial concentration of butylene oxide is 0.25 mol / L = Ca. The reaction is conducted using water as the solvent, so that water is in large excess. (a) Let the molecular weight of water is 18 g / mol and the mass of 1 kg in 1 L of water, calculate the molar density of water, Cb in the unit of mol / L. (b) Determine the final conversion, X of butylene oxide in the batch reactor after t = 45 min of reaction time. Use the formula X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] derived from material balance. (c) Find the equation of t as a function of X.1 1363
Question 52 - The half-life for first order reaction could be described in the differential equation dC / dt = -kC where k is a constant, C is concentration and t is time. (a) Find the equation of C as a function of t. (b) Find the half life for such reaction or the time required to reduce 50 % of the initial concentration, where k = 0.139 per minute. (c) When the initial concentration Co is 16 mol / cubic metre, how long does the reaction required to achieve the final concentration of 1 mol / cubic metre?1 1096
Question 53 - In the purchase of a machine with a period n = 8.5 years, the minimum attractive rate of return, i = 12 %, the cost P = $55000, F = $4000 is the salvage, annual maintenance A = $3500. The return of the investment or equivalent uniform annual benefit is $15000. The equivalent uniform annual cost is P (A / P, i, n) + A - F (A / F, i, n). The investment is considered acceptable only when equivalent uniform annual benefit is greater than the equivalent uniform annual cost. From the compound interest table, (A / P, i = 12 %, n = 8 years) = 0.2013, (A / P, i = 12 %, n = 9 years) = 0.1877, (A / F, i = 12 %, n = 8 years) = 0.0813, (A / F, i = 12 %, n = 9 years) = 0.0677. Prove by calculations whether the investment above is acceptable.1 941
Question 54 - There are 2 alternatives of investment. Choice 1 : A trader offers you an investment opportunity where your investment of A$15000 presently will be A$18000 after 4 years. Choice 2 : A bank offers you 5 % annual return for your initial investment of A$15000. Question a : What is the equivalent bank payment after 4 years? Question b : By using the concept of equivalence in engineering economy, which is the better choice, betwen 1 and 2, that will be more profitable after 4 years?1 1001
How much waterproofing compound in one Sqm Plastering (thick.12mm)818
Question 55 - The differential equation is 3 dy / dt + 2y = 1 with y(0) = 1. (a) The Laplace transformation, L for given terms are : L (dy / dt) = sY(s) - y(0), L(y) = Y(s), L(1) = 1 / s. Use such transformation to find Y(s). (b) The initial value theorem states that : When t approaches 0 for a function of y(t), it is equal to a function of sY(s) when s approaches infinity. Use the initial value theorem as a check to the answer found in part (a).1 1001
Question 56 - The kinetic behavior of an enzyme could be described using Michalis - Menten equation : Vo = Vmax [S] / (Km + [S]). Derive this equation from [ES] = [E]total [S] / (Km + [S]), Vmax = Kcat [E]total, Vo = Kcat [ES].1 1048
Question 57 – There are 2 simultaneous equations : (A1) x + (B1) y = D1 and (A2) x + (B2) y = D2. (a) By using Excel program, find the values of x and y when A1 = 80, A2 = 150, B1 = 52, B2 = 100, D1 = 3.5 and D2 = 2.3. (b) Write the expression of Excel in the form of =MMULT(MINVERSE(W:X),Y:Z) in order to get the values of x and y. W, X, Y and Z may be A1, A2, B1, B2, D1 and D2.1 1098
Question 58 – In the design of a solar power system steps of calculations below are followed : (a) The power output of the inverter of the of the solar panel is 100 watts. What is the power input, Pin to the inverter when the efficiency of the inverter is 50 %? (b) If the rated power of the inverter is 300 watts, how many inverter is needed for the solar panel? (c) Charge controller of V = 12 volts is used to supply power to the inverter. What is the input current I to the inverter? (d) If the charge controller capacity is 10 A, how many charge controllers are needed? (e) If a biochemical mixer consumes 100 watts, running for 2 hours per day, what is the energy consumption in kilowatt hour per day? (f) What is the input energy needed when the efficiency of the inverter is 50 %? (g) If your area receives 2.88 hours of full sunlight per day, how much energy, in kilowatt hour can be produced per day when one solar panel can produce 20 watts of power? (h) If you know that you have to produce total energy as the answer for (f), how many solar panels are needed? (i) Each V = 12 V battery has 5 ampere hours. If the total energy needed is in answer (f), then how many batteries are needed to run the biochemical mixer if without sunlight for 3 days?1 1099
Question 59 – There are 5 simultaneous equations with 5 unknowns as follow : 16 V – 4 X – Z = 36, 4 X – 4 W – Y + Z = 3, 8 V + 4 W – X + Y = 10, X – W = 1, V + W = 0. Find the values of V, W, X, Y and Z accurately within 15 minutes. State the computer program that you use to get the answers.1 1053
Question 60 – During the landing process of an airplane, the velocity is constant at v. (a) If the displacement of the plane is x at time t, find the differential equation that relates t, x and v. (b) The plane has 2 parts of wheels – the front and the back, separated by a distance L. The front part of the wheel touches the land first, that allows the straight body of the plane to form an angle T with the horizontal land. If the vertical distance between the back part of the wheel and the horizontal land is y, find the equation of y as a function of L and T. (c) Find the differential equation that relates dy as a function of dt, v and sin T. (d) Find the differential equation that consist of dy as a function of y, L, v and dt. (e) Find the equation of y as a function of v, L, t and C where C is a constant. (f) When t = 0, prove that y = exp C as the initial value of y.1 946
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