BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTATION - EXAMPLE 29.5 : The following formula is used as a reference : (analyte signal) / (internal standard signal) = (f-factor) x (concentration of analyte) / (concentration of internal standard). A solution containing 3 mM of analyte and 4 mM of internal standard gave peak signals of 2 and 3 mamps respectively. Another similar solution containing 2 mM of analyte and 1 mM of internal standard gave peak signals of 1 and 4 mamps respectively. Find the average f-factor.1 761
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTATION - EXAMPLE 29.6 : In infrared spectrum, one of the factors affecting peak location is the mass of the atoms. The stretching frequency of a bond connected to a lighter atom will be greater than the same bond connected to a heavier atom. (a) For halogens like florine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At), what is their IUPAC group number? Hint : The proton numbers for F, Cl, Br, I and At are 9, 17, 35, 53 and 85 respectively. (b) For the compounds of H-F, H-Cl, H-Br, H-I and H-At, which one has the lowest stretching frequency and which one has the highest stretching frequency? State the reasons.1 883
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.1 : Two viruses a and b with masses of Ma and Mb are moving at velocities of Va and Vb respectively, facing towards each other and collide. After collision both masses of Ma and Mb disappear. (a) Find the total momentum available for both a and b. Hint : momentum = mass x velocity = M x V. (b) Guess the total energy E generated from the disappearance of a and b. Let c to be the velocity of light. Hint : E is equal to M c square.1 788
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.2 : The Planck-Einstein relation connects the particulate photon energy E with its associated wave frequency f to produce E = hf. Let h to be the Planck constant. The frequency f, wavelength L and speed of light c are related by E = hc / L. With p denoting the linear momentum of a particle, the de Broglie wavelength L of the particle is given by L = h / p. (a) Find the equation of E as a function of p and c. (b) If E has a unit of electron-volt and f has a unit of 1 / second, then what is the unit of h?1 740
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.3 : (a) The quantum number m is given by m = -s, -s + 1. If s = 0.5, find the values of m. (b) | T > = (cos T) | V > + (sin T) | H >. The V and H states form a basis for all polarizations. Let cos T = 0.8. (i) If (sin T)(sin T) + (cos T)(cos T) = 1, find the value of sin T. (ii) For | T > = a | V > + b | H >, where a x a represents the probability of | V > and b x b represents the probability of | H >. Which one is more abundant, | V > or | H >? (iii) Find the value of T without using any mathematical tools.1 721
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.5 : (a) Let | A > = (Aa Ab Ac), | B > = (Ba Bb Bc), | C > = (Ca Cb Cc). Find | A > + | C > - | B > in term of Aa, Ab, Ac, Ba, Bb, Bc, Ca, Cb and Cc. (b) Let d | E > = d (Ea Eb Ec) = (d Ea d Eb d Ec). If | E > = (6 7 8), find the value of 10 | E >.1 793
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.4 : (a) Time evolution in Heisenberg picture, according to Ehrenfest theorem is m (d / dt) < r > = < p >, where m = mass, r = position, p = momentum of a particle. If v = velocity, prove that m < v > = < p >. (b) Lande g-factor is given by Gj = Gl [ J (J + 1) - S (S + 1) + L (L + 1) ] / [ 2J (J + 1) ] + Gs [ J (J + 1) + S (S + 1) - L (L + 1) ] / [ 2J (J + 1) ]. If Gl = 1 and under approximation of Gs = 2, prove by calculation that Gj = (3/2) + [ S (S + 1) - L (L + 1) ] / [ 2J (J + 1) ].1 727
Question 111 - There are 6 spin orbitals in p subshell in a ground state carbon atom. Only 2 electrons fill the p subshell. Number of different ways for n electrons to occupy the k spin orbitals are k! / [ (n!) (k-n)! ]. Find the number of different configurations of electrons to occupy the p subshell in a carbon atom.1 804
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.1 : As an approximation, let v = Zc / 137 where v is the radial velocity for 1 s electron of an element, c is the speed of light, Z is the atomic number. For gold with Z = 79, find the radial velocity of its 1 s electron, in term of c and percentage of the speed of light. (b) As an approximation, let A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 where A is the ratio of the relativistic and non-relativistic Bohr radius. Find the value of A.1 802
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.2 : (a) Let | - > = 1 | x > + 0 | y >, | | > = 0 | x > + 1 | y >. Find the value of 2 | x > + 3 | y > in term of | - > and | | >. (b) Let m to be the reduced mass. Find the value of m in term of Ma and Mb where 1 / m = 1 / Ma + 1 / Mb.1 816
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.3 : In photoelectrical effect analysis of quantum chemistry, let E = kinetic energy of electron, p = intensity of UV light, f = frequency of UV light. According to Classical Theory, E = c for all values of f, E = mp. According to Quantum Theory, E = c for all values of p, E = mf + c. In a graph, m and c are constants where m is slope and c is y intercept. If m = 2 and c = 3 with similar value of E : (a) find the value of p according to Classical Theory; (b) find the value of f according to Quantum Theory.1 941
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.4 : In a rigid rotor model in quantum chemistry, the moment of inertia I is given by an Equation E as I = Ma x La x La + Mc x Lc x Lc = m x L x L, where m = (Ma x Mc) / (Ma + Mc) and L = La + Lc, m is the reduced mass, Ma is the mass of a, Mc is the mass of c, La is the radius of a from point O, Lc is the radius of c from point O. Prove by simplest method that Equation E is wrong.1 714
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.5 : In a wavefunction, let P(x) = A cos kx + B sin kx. By using the boundary conditions of x = 0 and x = l, where P(0) = P(l) = 0, prove by mathematical calculation that P(x) = B sin (npx / l) where p = 22 / 7 approximately, n is a rounded number. A, B and k are constants.1 817
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.6 : In N + 1 Rule in Quantum Chemistry, whenever a spin 1 / 2 nucleus is adjacent to N other nuclei, it is split into N + 1 distinct peaks. In 1 peak or singlet, there is only 1 magnitude. In 2 peaks or doublet, the ratio of magnitude of each peak is 1 : 1. In 3 peaks or triplet, the ratio of magnitude of each peak is 1 : 2 : 1. In 4 peaks or quartet, the ratio of magnitude of each peak is 1 : 3 : 3 : 1. In 5 peaks or quintet, the ratio of magnitude of each peak is 1 : 4 : 6 : 4 : 1. (a) By using binomial coefficients or Triangle of Pascal find the ratio of magnitude of each peak if 6 peaks exists. (b) How many adjacent nuclei are available in a spin 1 / 2 nucleus in such situation of 6 peaks?1 756
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.7 : (a) The correct statement about both the average value of position ( ) of a 1-dimensional harmonic oscillator wavefunction is = 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
) of a 1-dimensional harmonic oscillator wavefunction is = 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
= 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
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