Question 102 - (a) As an approximation, let v = Zc / 137 where v is the radial velocity for 1 s electron of an element, c is the speed of light, Z is the atomic number. For gold with Z = 79, find the radial velocity of its 1 s electron, in term of c and percentage of the speed of light. (b) As an approximation, let A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 where A is the ratio of the relativistic and non-relativistic Bohr radius. Find the value of A.1 1408
THERMODYNAMIC - EXAMPLE 10.1 : The water is superheated steam at 440 degree Celsius and 17.32 megapascals. Estimate the enthalpy of the steam above. From the steam table for water at 440 degree Celsius, enthalpy of steam, h at 18 megapascals is 3103.7 kilojoules per kilogram and at 16 megapascal is 3062.8 kilojoules per kilogram. Assume that h = mP + c where P is pressure; m and c are constants at fixed temperature with small differences in P.1 1025
THERMODYNAMIC - EXAMPLE 10.2 : A cylinder with a movable piston contains 0.1 mole of a monoatomic ideal gas. The piston moves through state a, b and c. The heat Q, changes from state c to a is + 685 J. The work W, changes from state c to a is - 120 J. The work, W performed from state a to b then to c is 75 J. By using the first law of thermodynamic, U = Q + W where U is the internal energy : (a) Determine the change in internal energy between states a and c. (b) Is heat added or removed from the gas when the gas is taken along the path abc? (c) Calculate the heat added or removed when the gas is taken along the path abc?1 1125
THERMODYNAMIC - EXAMPLE 10.3 : According to Raoult's law, the pressure when vapor is completely condensed, P = x(1) P(1) + x(2) P(2) ... + x(n) P(n) when x(1), x(2) ... x(n) are the mole fractions of component 1, 2 ... n and P(1), P(2) ... P(n) are the vapor pressures of component 1, 2 ... n. A vapor at 74 degree Celsius containing 70 mole % water and 30 mole % ethanol is to be completely condensed. At the temperature of 74 degree Celsius vapor pressure is 0.38 atm for water and 0.97 atm for ethanol. What is the minimum pressure the compressor must be operated?1 971
CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.1 : Please match the term A - E with the stated definition i - v. Terms : A. Yield. B. Selectivity. C. Relative saturation. D. Molal saturation. E. Absolute saturation. Definitions : i. (moles of desired product formed) / (moles that would have been formed if there were no side reactions and the limiting reactant has reacted completely); ii. (moles of desired product formed) / (moles of undesired product formed); iii. (relative humidity 40 % means partial pressure of water vapour equals 4 / 10 of the vapour pressure of water at the system temperature); iv. (moles of vapour) / (moles of vapour dry gas); v. (mass of vapour) / (mass of dry gas).1 925
CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.2 : Calculate the cooling duty, H required to condense and cool acetone from 100 degree Celsius to 25 degree Celsius at atmospheric pressure. The heat of vaporization for acetone at its normal boiling point is 30.2 kJ / mol. The boiling point of acetone at atmospheric pressure is 56 degree Celsius. The flowrate of acetone through the condenser is 100 mol / s = N. Value of sensible heat needed to increase the temperature of acetone in liquid form from 25 to 56 degree Celsius is 4.06 kJ / mol. Value of sensible heat needed to increase the temperature of acetone in vapor form from 56 to 100 degree Celsius is 3.82 kJ / mol. Unit of H is kJ / s.1 1013
CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.3 : For liquid benzene, the CP constants are : a = 129440, b = - 169.5, c = 0.64781. Reference temperature is 298 K. The temperature of benzene is 60 degree Celsius. Calculate the enthalpy of benzene by using the formula H = a (DT) + (b/2) (T^2 - TREF^2) + (c/3) (T^3 - TREF^3) where ^ is power, DT is temperature difference with TREF = 298 K. H is in J / kmol. DT = T - TREF.1 1579
Question 103 - (a) Let | - > = 1 | x > + 0 | y >, | | > = 0 | x > + 1 | y >. Find the value of 2 | x > + 3 | y > in term of | - > and | | >. (b) Let m to be the reduced mass. Find the value of m in term of Ma and Mb where 1 / m = 1 / Ma + 1 / Mb.1 1203
CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.4 : Calculate the bubble temperature T at P = 85-kPa for a binary liquid with x(1) = 0.4. The liquid solution is ideal. The saturation pressures are Psat(1) = exp [ 14.3 - 2945 / (T + 224) ], Psat(2) = exp [ 14.2 - 2943 / (T + 209) ] where T is in degree Celsius. Please take note that x(1) + x(2) = 1. Please take note that y(1) + y(2) = 1, y(1) = [ x(1) * Psat(1) ] / P, y(2) = [ x(2) * Psat(2) ] / P, * is multiplication. P is in kPa.1 932
CHEMICAL ENERGY BALANCE - EXAMPLE 11.5 : According to Margules Equation, P = x(1) p(1) g(1) + x(2) p(2) g(2) for a two-component mixture where P is bubble pressure, x is mole fraction, p is saturation pressure, g is constant given by ln g(1) = x(2) A x(2). Find the value of A as a constant when P = 1.08 bar, p(1) = 0.82 bar, p(2) = 1.93 bar in a 50 : 50 mole fraction mixture. Estimate the pressure required to completely liquefy the 30 : 70 mixture using the same equation, by proving P = 1.39 bar. Take note that ln g(2) = x(1) A x(1), ln g(1) = x(2) A x(2).1 1111
ENGINEERING MATERIAL - EXAMPLE 12.1 : In crystal material, hexagonal crystal system could form 4-digit index in certain direction of solid. For [1(-1)0] direction in the hexagonal crystal systems of particular catalyst applied in fume removal of incinerator, what is the four-digit index for this direction? Hint : The transformation equations between the 3-digit [h'k'l'] and the 4-digit [hkil] indices are : h = (1/3) (2h'-k'); i = - (h + k); k = (1/3) (2k'-h'); l = l' A. [(-1)100] B. [1(-1)00] C. [(-1)000] D. [00(-1)(-1)] E. [(-1)0(-1)0]1 985
ENGINEERING MATERIAL - EXAMPLE 12.2 : At 150 degree Celsius, a mixture of 40 wt % Sn and 60 wt % Pb present, forming phases of alpha and beta. Chemical composition of Sn at each phase : CO (overall) : 40 %, CA (alpha) : 11 %, CB (beta) : 99 %. (a) State 2 reasons for the existences of alpha and beta phases for the mixture of Sn - Pb at 150 degree Celsius. (b) By using Lever Rule, calculate the weight fraction of each phase for alpha, WA = Q / (P + Q) and beta, WB = P / (P + Q) where Q = CB - CO and P = CO - CA.1 1140
ENGINEERING MATERIAL - EXAMPLE 12.3 : Let a ^ 2 = a x a and a ^ 3 = a x a x a where ^ is power function. Niobium is a metal with a body-centered cubic structure. The length of the unit cell structure is b = 0.3349 nm. (a) Find the volume for a unit cell structure for niobium. (b) There are 2 atoms per unit cell structure of niobium. The metal has a molar mass of 92.9 g / mol. One mole of the metal consists of 6.02 x 10 ^ 23 atoms. Find the mass of niobium per unit cell and the density of niobium.1 1010
REACTION ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 13.1 : In a furnace, 2 chemical reactions are happening - 1 mole of solid carbon reacts with 1 mole of oxygen gas to generate 1 mole of carbon dioxide gas; 1 mole of solid carbon reacts with 0.5 mole of oxygen gas to generate 1 mole of carbon monoxide gas. In a given process, 100 kmol of carbon is burned in a furnace. (a) Calculate the theoretical oxygen gas needed by assuming that all the carbon is burned completely to carbon dioxide gas. (b) Calculate the theoretical air needed by assuming that all the carbon is burned completely to carbon dioxide gas and there is only 21 % of oxygen gas. (c) Determine the amount of air required (in kmol) if 50 % excess oxygen gas must be satisfied for (a) and (b). (d) It has latter been found that 20 % of the carbon undergoes incomplete combustion resulting to carbon monoxide gas production. The rest of the carbon undergoes complete combustion. Calculate the total oxygen gas required stoichiometrically based on the actual process.1 1281
REACTION ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 13.2 : A batch reactor is designed for the system of the irreversible, elementary liquid-phase hydration of butylene oxide that produces butylene glycol. At the reaction temperature T = 323 K, the reaction rate constant is k = 0.00083 L / (mol - min). The initial concentration of butylene oxide is 0.25 mol / L = Ca. The reaction is conducted using water as the solvent, so that water is in large excess. (a) Let the molecular weight of water is 18 g / mol and the mass of 1 kg in 1 L of water, calculate the molar density of water, Cb in the unit of mol / L. (b) Determine the final conversion, X of butylene oxide in the batch reactor after t = 45 min of reaction time. Use the formula X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] derived from material balance. (c) Find the equation of t as a function of X.1 851
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