routing
1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2?
2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet?
3. Is OSPF link state or distance vector or path vector
protocol?
4. What is the difference between OSPF and IS-IS and which
one is preferred?
5. Can we use BGP instead of any IGP?
6. How many network types available in OSPF?
7. Different type of Link State Advertisements aka LSA?
8. LSA 3 and LSA 4 are generated by which router?
9. When to use Stub and Not So Stubby Area?
10. How to get the external routes without making area Not
So Stubby?
11. What is the different type of route summarization
available in OSPF?
12. What is the requirement of doing summarization?
13. A major network is advertised as summary in one area
and few of the routes from that network is configured in
another area. What will happen in that case?
14. If any of the OSPF area is not stabilized, does it
impact another area?
15. What is the use of forwarding address in LSA 5 and LSA
7?
16. External routes are available in OSPF database but not
installing in routing table?
17. If loopback is not configured, what will be the router-
id selected by OSPF process?
18. Can we run multiple OSPF process in single router and
what is the advantage of using it?
19. What are timers of OSPF?
20. Multicast address of used by OSPF.
21. OSPF works on which layer?
22. What is backbone area in OSPF?
23. Can we use OSPF without backbone area?
24. Is it required that OSPF router-id must reachable in
IGP cloud?
25. After configuring new router-id, automatically it will
be used or do we need to use some type of command to get it
operational.
26. Why the secondary ip address of interface is not
advertising in IGP cloud?
27. OSPF neighbourship is not coming up. Please tell the
various steps to troubleshoot it.
28. One side MTU is 1500 and another side MTU is 1600. Does
it affect neighbourship?
29. Provide process of DR and BDR election.
30. If DR is down and no BDR is configured what will happen?
31. What is the difference between a neighbor and adjacent
neighbor?
32. My OSPF neighbourship is showing 2-way, what does it
mean?
33. Define different type of OSPF neighbor states?
34. OSPF external routes are not redistributing?



switching

1. Difference between hub, bridge and switch?
2. What is mac address and why it is required?
3. In layer 2 domain do we need ip address for
communication?
4. What is arp and why it is required?
5. What is Spanning Tree Protocol aka STP?
6. What is the difference between STP, MSTP, PVST and RSTP?
7. Can we use the two same paths for same vlan?
8. What is the difference between broadcast and collision
domain?
9. Define type of lan traffic.
10. What is destination address of broadcast frame?
11. Can we connect a switch to switch with straight cable?
12. Define functions of switch.
13. What is arp timeout?
14. What is aging process?
15. What is BPDU?
16. What is path cost?
17. Define selection criteria of STP root bridge.
18. How to non bridge decide which port will elect as root
port?
19. If a nonroot bridge has two redundant ports with the
same root path cost, how does the bridge choose which port
will be the root port?
20. Port states of spanning tree protocol.
21. If the users face delay during initial login, what you
will suggest to implement?
22. Why spanning tree BPDU filter is used?
23. Can I use BPDU filter on trunk ports?
24. What is port security?
25. I want to learn only a single mac from the port, what
need to be configured?
26. Can we use spanning port-fast on trunk ports?
27. If management ip address is changed, will user’s
traffic will be dropped?
28. Difference between trunk and access port?
29. What is UDLD and why it is required?
30. What is interface vlan on switch?




bgp

1. BGP is IGP or EGP?
2. BGP is link state or distance vector protocol?
3. BGP uses which port?
4. When to use BGP?
5. Can I use BGP instead of any IGP?
6. Can I run two BGP process on single router?
7. What is Autonomous System?
8. Types of BGP routing table?
9. What is the BGP path selection criteria?
10. Define various BGP path attributes.
11. Why weight doesn’t fall under path attribute category?
12. What is confederation?
13. What is route reflector and why it is required?
14. What is no-synchronization rule?
15. Default BGP timers.
16. When does BGP use 0.0.0.0 router id?
17. Does route reflector come in actual path during traffic
forwarding?
18. What is Site of origin aka SOO?
19. What is the cost of external and internal BGP routes?
20. Can we use local preference outside the autonomous
system?
21. Does it require that BGP router-id should reachable in
cloud?
22. What is recursive lookup in BGP and how it works?
23. What is the meaning of update source loopback?
24. If a static route is advertised in BGP without using
update source what will be the next hop address in update?
25. Define various types of communities and why they are
used?
26. If BGP neighbor state is showing idle what does it mean?
27. In Multihoming scenario if primary link gets fail,
after how long traffic will be shifted to secondary link.
28. I am having two routes for remote destination but only
single route is installing in routing table, what’s the
reason for this?
29. How many links can be assigned for load balancing or
sharing?
30. In eBGP I am establishing my neighbourship with
loopback address but it’s not coming up. Please specify
different reasons for not coming up.
31. Can we redistribute BGP in IGP? Please explain your
answers.
32. What is cluster id?
33. I am receiving updates from eBGP peer, will the next
hop change or not?
34. I am receiving updates from iBGP peer, will the next
hop change or not?
35. A router is receiving same route from two different
eBGP peers. The AS information contains in peer 1 is
{65500, 65550, 65555} and in peer 2 is {65501, 65501}. But
I want to make peer 1 preferred.
36. What is the difference between next-hop-self and update
source loopback?
37. Define loop prevention mechanism in BGP.



mpls and vpn
1. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS?
2. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short
time?
3. What is the protocol used by MPLS?
4. MPLS works on which layer?
5. What is the difference between P and PE router?
6. Can I make my PE router as P?
7. Two routers are having 4 equal cost links, how many ldp
sessions will be established?
8. My LDP router id, OSPF router id and BGP router id is
different, will it work to forward the traffic of customers
or not?
9. What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required?
Which router performs the PHP function?
10. I am receiving aggregate label, what does it mean?
11. What are the different types of labels?
12. How to make customer route unique?
13. What is the difference between RD and RT?
14. Can I assign a same RD to two different customers?
15. Is RD travels in route update?
16. My customer is having three branches and all are
attached to three different PEs, In this case can I use the
different vrf names?
17. What is downstream on demand?
18. How to filter MPLS labels?
19. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco
routers
? How to extend that range?
20. Without route reflector can I implement MPLS?
21. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address
family?
22. What is MP-iBGP? Can we use normal BGP in lieu of MP-
iBGP?
23. What is LIB, LFIB?
24. What is CEF and without enabling CEF, can we make MPLS
work?
25. I am receiving end to end customer routes on various PE
but not able to ping those routes, what’s could be the
problem?
26. What is explicit null and implicit null?
27. Default timers of LDP?
28. Does LDP require OSPF, IS-IS or BGP?
29. In neighbor discovery command, I am receiving only
xmit, what does it mean?
30. What is transport address?
31. What is the RFC of MPLS?
32. Why MPLS is called multi protocol?
33. What is the difference between MPLS, SSL and IPSec?
34. I am using different vendor products and want to
implement TDP, what type of challenges will you face?
35. Does MPLS support IPv6?
36. Can I use the existing IPv4 MPLS backbone for IPv6?
37. Define various troubleshooting commands in MPLS?
38. What is forward equivalence class aka FEC?
39. What is adjacency table?
40. Difference between MPLS IP and MPLS Label Protocol LDP
command?
41. If MPLS get disable, will it harm my IGP or IPv4
traffic?




Answers were Sorted based on User's Feedback



routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / amit

ripv1 is classfull & ripv2 is classless routing protocol.
ripv1 does not support authentication ripv2 support
authentication.
ripv1 forward broadcast where ripv2 forward multicast.
multicast address is 224.0.0.9

Is This Answer Correct ?    55 Yes 3 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / anuj

TYPE 3 & 4 LSA's are both generated by ABR & TYPE 5 LSA and
TYPE7(in case of NSSA)are generated by ASBR..

Is This Answer Correct ?    23 Yes 2 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / vijay

Rip V2 support authentication but RIP V1 do not support for auth

Is This Answer Correct ?    18 Yes 1 No




routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / ketan

2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet?
Ans :1 - 25 RTEs(Route Entries). each RTE representing a
single route.ie max 25 routes

Is This Answer Correct ?    14 Yes 2 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / prasad

3 is by ABR and 4 is by ASBR

Is This Answer Correct ?    17 Yes 7 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / hitendra suthar

LSA 3 and LSA 4 are generated by which router?

LSA Type 3- Network Summary- Generated by an ABR and
advertised among areas.
LSA Type 4- ASBR Summary- Injected by an ABR into the
backbone to advertise the presence of an ASBR within an area.

Is This Answer Correct ?    5 Yes 0 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / sonu

RIP VERSION-1
1)RIP VERSION 1 SEND UPDATES ON BROADCAST ADDRESS
255.255.255.255
2)RIP VERSION 1 ALSO DOESN'T SUPPORTS AUTHENTICATION.
3)RIP VERSION 1 ALSO SUPPORT ONLY CLASS-FULL NETWORK.
4)RIP VERSIONS1 ALSO DOESN'T SUPPORTS TRIGGERED UPDATES.
5)RIP VERSION 1 ALSO CAN SEND AND RECEIVED VERSION 1 UPDATES
AND IT ALSO CAN RECEIVES VERSION 2 UPDATES.
RIP VERSION-2
1)RIP VERSION 2 SEND UPDATES ON MULTICAST ADDRESS 224.0.0.9
2)RIP VERSION 2 ALSO SUPPORTS TWO TYPES OF AUTHENTICATION 1.
PLAIN TEXT 2 MD5
3)RIP VERSION 2 ALSO SUPPORTS CLASSLESS ROUTING.
4)RIP VERSION 2 ALSO SUPPORTS TRIGGERED UPDATES BUT IT WILL
BE ONLY SERIAL INTERFACES.
5)RIP VERSION 2 ONLY CAN SEND AND RECEIVES ONLY VERSION 2
UPDATES BY DEFAULT.

Is This Answer Correct ?    3 Yes 0 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / sonu

OSPF IS LINK STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL THE BEHAVIOR OF DISTANCE
VECTOR ONLY ON ABR.

Is This Answer Correct ?    1 Yes 0 No

routing 1. Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? 2. How many number of routes carried by RIP packet..

Answer / vijay

LSA 3 and LSA 4 are generated by which router ?


Generated by ASBR

Is This Answer Correct ?    2 Yes 22 No

Post New Answer



More TCP IP Interview Questions

How can we create more than 20 ID's in Gmail.com from one IP ?

1 Answers   3i Infotech,


if we r having OSI model they why nowadays we r using TCP?IP model??

15 Answers   Wipro,


What is the difference between subnet mask and default subnet mask

4 Answers   iSoft, MSys,


Is Wifi is the application software or system software

9 Answers  


How a router can be configured permanently to permit a specific network from 1 Am to 7AM and deny rest of all times

3 Answers   Cisco, IIHT,






EXplain how the TCP/IP suite addresses routing

2 Answers  


why we use class c IP address most

7 Answers   IBM, College School Exams Tests, DELL,


i want how to repair registry

6 Answers   Impetus, Reliance, TCS,


which IP address will probably be used for an organization having a network of between 1000 and 1500 computers? explain your reason for arriving at the solution

12 Answers   IBM, Wipro, IIJT,


what is DNS & Active diretory ?

11 Answers  


What's the meaning of ARP in TCP/IP?

12 Answers   Cisco,


how does TCP IP STACK PROTOCOL WORKS AS IP IS CONNECTON LESS AND TCP IS CONNECTION oriented

2 Answers  






Categories