PROCESS DESIGN - EXAMPLE 21.3 : According to a heuristic of chemical engineering plant design, assume a pressure difference dP = 4 psi for each 10-ft rise in elevation. A pump is needed to pump liquid from a storage tank at a lower elevation to a heating tank at a higher elevation with the elevation difference of 60 ft. (a) Find the pressure loss due to such elevation. (b) If the required minimum inlet pressure to the heating tank is 9 psi, with 1 control valve is installed between pump and heating tank, what is the dP minimum required for the control valve and the entrance to the heating tank when the heuristic mentions that at least 10 psi is required for the control valve? (c) The pressure at the inlet of the pump is 8 psi and the flowrate of the liquid produces pressure head of 50 psi. What is the total pressure produced by the pump? (d) Assume a pipeline dP of 2 psi / 100 ft for liquid flow in a pipe according to heuristic, what is the approximate maximum length of the pipe in ft that can be installed between the pump and the heating tank?1 1192
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - QUESTION 22.1 : In order to predict the wastewater production, the population number has to be understood. The population data is : 72000 (for year 1961 or P-1961), 85000 (for year 1971 or P-1971), 110500 (for year 1981 or P-1981). (a) Find the average population increase, or [ (P-1981 - P-1971) + (P-1971 - P-1961) ] / 2. (b) Find the average percentage population increase, or [ (P-1981 - P-1971) / P-1971 + (P-1971 - P-1961) / P-1961 ] / (2) X 100. (c) Find the incremental increase or P-1981 - 2 (P-1971) + P-1961. (d) Let Po = P-1981. After 2 decades or n = 2, the population is P-2001. By using arithmetical increase method, find P-2001 = Po + n (Answer for a). (e) By using incremental increase method, find P-2001 = (Answer of d) + n (n + 1) (Answer of c) / 2. (f) By using geometrical increase method, find P-2001 = Po [ 1 + (Answer of b) / 100 ] ^ n where ^ is power sign, or 1 ^ 2 = 1 x 1 = 1. (g) If the actual P-2001 = 184000, which method of estimation is more accurate, based on your answer in (d), (e) and (f)?1 984
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - QUESTION 22.2 : Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) could be calculated using the formula BOD = (DOi - DOf) (Vb / Vs) where Vb = Volume of bottle in ml, Vs = Volume of sample in ml, DOi = Initial dissolved oxygen in mg / L, DOf = Final dissolved oxygen in mg / L. (a) By using a bottle of Vb = 300 ml with sample Vs = 30 ml, find the BOD if DOi = 8.8 mg / L and DOf = 5.9 mg / L. (b) By using a bottle Vb = 600 mL with sample Vs = 100 mL, find the BOD if DOi = 8.8 mg / L and DOf = 4.2 mg / L. (c) Find the average BOD = [ Answer of (a) + Answer of (b) ] / 2. (d) If the BOD-5 test for (a) - (c) is run on a secondary effluent using a nitrification inhibitor, find the nitrogenous BOD (NBOD) = TBOD - CBOD. Let TBOD = 45 mg / L and CBOD = Answer of (c).1 1594
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - QUESTION 22.3 : A well delivers 225 US-gallons per minute of water to a chemical plant during normal system operation. (a) Calculate its flowrate in the unit of mega US-gallon per day or MGD. (b) The following formula is written next to the chlorine feed point : (chlorine feed rate, lb / day) = (flowrate, MGD) X (dose, mg / L) x (8.34). If this formula is correct, then what should the chlorine feed rate to be in pounds per day (lb / day) if the desired dose is 2 mg / L. (c) Prove by calculations that the constant 8.34 in the formula next to the chlorine feed point is correct. Let 1 US-gallon = 3.78541 L and 1 mg = 0.0000022046 pound.1 952
FOOD ENGINEERING - QUESTION 23.1 : (a) According to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list, accessed 12 August 2016), 100 g of potatoes generate 77 kcal of energy. For raw tomatoes, 111 g have 18 kcal of energy. Question : How much energy will one gain if 150 g of heated potatoes are eaten with 200 g of raw tomatoes? (b) If 1 Calorie = 1 food Calorie = 1 kilocalorie and 1000 calories = 1 food Calorie, then how many Calories are there in 9600 calories? (c) According to a food package of potato chips, 210 Calories are produced per serving size of 34 g. In actual experiment of food calorimetry lab, 1.75 g of potato chips, when burnt, will produce 9.6 Calories. For each serving size of potato chip, find the difference of Calories between the actual experimental value and the value stated on the food package. (d) The specific heat of water is c = 1 cal / (g.K) where cal is calorie, g is gram and K is Kelvin. Then what is the temperature rise of water, in degree Celsius, when 150 g of water is heated by 9600 calories of burning food?1 1064
FOOD ENGINEERING - QUESTION 23.2 : (a) A dryer reduces the moisture content of 100 kg of a potato product from 80 % to 10 % moisture. Find the mass of the water removed in such drying process. (b) During the drying process, the air is cooled from 80 °C to 71 °C in passing through the dryer. If the latent heat of vaporization corresponding to a saturation temperature of 71 °C is 2331 kJ / kg for water, find the heat energy required to evaporate the water only. (c) Assume potato enters at 24 °C, which is also the ambient air temperature, and leaves at the same temperature as the exit air. The specific heat of potato is 3.43 kJ / (kg °C). Find the minimum heat energy required to raise the temperature of the potatoes. (d) 250 kg of steam at 70 kPa gauge is used to heat 49,800 cubic metre of air to 80 °C, and the air is cooled to 71 °C in passing through the dryer. If the latent heat of steam at 70 kPa gauge is 2283 kJ / kg, find the heat energy in steam. (e) Calculate the efficiency of the dryer based heat input and output, in drying air. Use the formula (Ti - To) / (Ti - Ta) where Ti is the inlet (high) air temperature into the dryer, To is the outlet air temperature from the dryer, and Ta is the ambient air temperature.1 988
Question 108 - (a) The correct statement about both the average value of position ( ) of a 1-dimensional harmonic oscillator wavefunction is = 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
) of a 1-dimensional harmonic oscillator wavefunction is = 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
= 1 - x. Find the value of x. (b) The probabilities of finding a particle around points A, B and C in the wavefunction y = f(x) are P(A), P(B) and P(C) respectively. Coordinates are A (3,5), B (4,-10) and C (6,7). Arrange P(A), P(B) and P(C) in term of a < b < c, when | y-coordinate | signifies the probability.
FOOD ENGINEERING - QUESTION 23.3 : (a) In the measurement of the browning (optical density) of fruit juice at 10 day interval, the following pairs of data are obtained with time t in days and browning or optical density (OD) : t = 0, OD = 0.05; t = 10, OD = 0.071; t = 20, OD = 0.089; t = 30, OD = 0.11; t = 40, OD = 0.128; t = 50, OD = 0.149; t = 60, OD = 0.17. (i) By using Excel or other programs, determine if such browning reaction can be characterised by pseudo zero order kinetics, with strong correlations between the data pairs of t and OD. (ii) When OD = 0.24, the shelf life T of such juice is expired. Calculate the value of T. (b) Let food cost percentage = ( food cost / food sales ) x 100. If total food cost of bread and butter are $25, food cost percentage of bread is 50 % and for butter is 50 %, find the total food sales of bread and butter.1 975
POLYMER ENGINEERING - QUESTION 24.1 : The molecular weights M in kg / mol of 3 different monomers a, b and c in a polymer are Ma = 14, Mb = 16 and Mc = 18. The fraction of polymer chain X of 3 different monomers a, b and c in a polymer are Xa = 0.5, Xb = 0.3 and Xc = 0.2. (i) Calculate number average molecular weight by using the formula Ma Xa + Mb Xb + Mc Xc. (ii) Calculate weight average molecular weight by using the formula (Ma Xa Ma + Mb Xb Mb + Mc Xc Mc) / (Ma Xa + Mb Xb + Mc Xc). (iii) Calculate the polydispersity by using the answer in (ii) divided by answer in (i). (iv) If the molecular weight of repeat unit is 12, calculate the degree of polymerization by using the formula (Ma Xa + Mb Xb + Mc Xc) / (molecular weight of repeat unit).1 1122
POLYMER ENGINEERING - QUESTION 24.2 : Let C% be the fractional crystallinity, Rs = density of sample, Ra = density of amorphous form and Rc = density of crystalline form. In a polymer, these unknowns could be related by the equation C% = (Rc / Rs) (Rs - Ra) / (Rc - Ra). (a) Find the equation of Rc as a function of C%, Rs and Ra. (b) Two samples of a polymer, C and D exist. For sample C, C% = 0.513 when Rs = 2.215 unit. For sample D, C% = 0.742 when Rs = 2.144 unit. Both samples C and D have the same values of Ra and Rc. Find the values of Ra and Rc in 6 decimal places.1 888
POLYMER ENGINEERING - QUESTION 24.3 : The molecular weights M in kg / mol of 3 different monomers a, b and c in a polymer are Ma = 14, Mb = 16 and Mc = 18, with their respective quantities in N units having the ratio of Na : Nb : Nc = 2 : 3 : 5. (a) Find the numerical average molecular weight of the polymer by using the formula (Ma Na + Mb Nb + Mc Nc) / (Na + Nb + Nc). (b) Find the weighted average molecular weight of the polymer by using the formula (Ma Na Ma + Mb Nb Mb + Mc Nc Mc) / (Ma Na + Mb Nb + Mc Nc). (c) Calculate the polydispersity Q by using the answer in (b) divided by answer in (a). (d) Find the volumetric average molecular weight of the polymer by using the formula (Ma Na Ma Ma + Mb Nb Mb Mb + Mc Nc Mc Mc) / (Ma Na Ma + Mb Nb Mb + Mc Nc Mc). (e) Estimate the polydispersity Q by using the answer in (d) divided by answer in (b).1 963
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING - QUESTION 25.1 : Fact 1 : Dry air contains 20.95 % oxygen, 78.09 % nitrogen, 0.93 % argon, 0.039 % carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases by volume. Fact 2 : Volume occupied is directly proportional to the number of moles for ideal gases at constant temperature and pressure. Fact 3 : 12.5 moles of pure oxygen is required to completely burn 1 mole of pure octane. Fact 4 : Air-fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of dry air to fuel present in a combustion process such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace. Fact 5 : Molecular weight of oxygen gas is 31.998 g / mole and molecular weight of nitrogen gas is 28.014 g / mole. (a) Find the molar ratio of nitrogen and oxygen, or (moles of nitrogen) / (moles of oxygen) in dry air, by assuming ideal features of nitrogen and oxygen gases. (b) How many moles of nitrogen are available if dry air is used to completely burn the 1 mole pure octane? (c) Find the mass of fuel of 1 mole of octane with molecular weight of 114.232 g / mole. (d) Find the mass of dry air with 12.5 moles of pure oxygen by assuming only oxygen and nitrogen gases exist in the air. (e) Find the air-fuel ratio (AFR) when octane is used as fuel. (f) Find the fuel-air ratio (FAR) when octane is used as fuel.1 993
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING - QUESTION 25.2 : (a) The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. Let SG = specific gravity of petroleum liquid, and V = barrels of crude oil per metric ton. Given the formula for API gravity = 141.5 / SG - 131.5 and V = (API gravity + 131.5) / (141.5 x 0.159), find the relationship of SG as a function of V. (b) An oil barrel is about 159 litres. If a cylinder with diameter d = 50 cm and height h = 50 cm is used to contain the oil, find the volume V of the cylinder in the unit of oil barrel by using the formula V = 3.142 x d x h x d / 4. (c) First reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels. Second reference : 1 cubic metre = 6.37 oil barrels. What are the 2 factors that cause the difference in such reference data?1 1076
Question 109 - (a) Acceptable wavefunction in quantum mechanics in the range of : negative infinity < x < positive infinity, vanishes at least at one boundary. Which of the following is the wavefunction or are the wavefunctions of acceptable theory : P = x, P = | x |, P = sin x, P = exp (-x), P = exp (-| x |)? State the reason. (b) Let linear momentum operator P = -ih d / dz. The wavefunction is S = exp (-ikz) where i x i = -1, k and h are constants. Find the linear momentum of such wavefunction by using the term P x S.1 4767
NATURAL GAS ENGINEERING - QUESTION 26.1 : (a) In natural gas pipe sizing, the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the farthest appliances is 60 feet. The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 60 feet in length are : 66 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 138 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 260 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the longest run method : (i) Find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour. (ii) Estimate the suitable range of capacities for the pipe size of 1 inch. (b) The maximum capacities for typical metallic pipes of 50 feet in length are : 73 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.5 inches; 151 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 0.75 inches; 285 cubic feet per hour for pipe size of 1 inch. By using the branch method find the best pipe size needed for the capacity of 75 cubic feet per hour when the length of the pipe from the gas source metre to the appliance is 52 feet.2 973
I am currently doing my btech in computer science in Coimbatore.I had intererest to do btech in chemical enginerring but couldnt get a seat. Now what are my options ,scope and future if i take mtech in chemical enginerring? And can i apply for any deemed colleges for mtech chemical enginerring through gate taking my present state into consideration(btech in cse and mtech in chemical enginerring)
y we do not differ b/w atomic mass and atomic wieght? from email@example.com
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