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what types of question asked in english section tata   0  864
DIRECTIONS (Q1-10).EACH QUESTION HAS TO BE ANSWERED FROM GIVEN PASSAGE. READING COMPREHENSION (PASSAGE) On 26th NOVEMBER, the airport police caught a youth Sravan kumar tried to smuggle 98 dried bear gall ladders out of the country. They looked like shriveled black mangoes, and no one but the expert could say that the weird looking things came from an animal. Even experts faltered in identifying the species of the animal the gall bladders came from. This was precisely the question turned up during the investigations. Under the Indian wild-life protection act 1972, the Himalayan brown bear figures among these schedules. Thus if the gall bladders came from the Himalayan brown bear as the airport police suspected, the Sravan kumar should have been prosecuted under the law. Actually drugs made from gall bladders are used in Tibetan medicine as cure for various ailments which includes joint aches, rheumatism, cataracts, gall stones, cancer and even as aphrodisiacs. Since these drugs are highly reputed (despite their being actually useless), the intact gall bladders of bears sell in the international markets at phenomenal rates. This has caused poaching of bears and consequent fall of bear population. Sravan kumar understood that he had been caught red-handed. The best way to circumvent the law was to deny that these where bear gall bladders. Consequently he asserted that the gall bladders where taken from pigs and not from bears. Since pig not in protected act- Sravan could go scot free. He banked upon the fact that the gall bladders of large mammals look alike and is extremely difficult to distinguish one from another. In effect question belonged to pigs or to bears. It was at this stage that the airport police asked for my help. Despite common belief forensic science doesn’t cater only on solving murders, killings or assassinations. Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge to solve any legal dispute. Since here the police did face a legal dilemma, forensic science could come to their rescue. During recent years the law enforcement agencies involved in protecting wildlife are increasingly turning to forensic science to bring culprits to the book. Protected animals are killed because of false beliefs in curative powers of medicines made from their body parts, or because of their valuable fur’s or hides or just because for plain fun. Poaching of elephants for ivory is a common problem. But ivory comes from a number of sources ( as many as fifteen ) and often even the criminals find it convenient to assert that ivory came from valid source. In US for instance trading in ivory is illegal, trading in ivory of now extinct mammoths and mastodons. There is synthetic ivory too which is plastic like material. Whenever smugglers are caught with ivory their standard answer is that ivory is from a mammoth which is completely legal. Forensic science once again comes to the rescue of wildlife officers. It helps in differentiating ivory coming from various sources. Mammoth ivory is usually darker than elephant ivory, since it contains traces of iron which has oxidized over time, but is not always the case. The best way ivory from various sources can be distinguished is by observing what are known as Schreger lines. Ivory is criss – crossed by dentinal tubules, which can be seen under a scanning electron micro – scope (SEM) as straight lines. These tubules where first described by a German research Schreger, after whom these lines are named. Thses schreger lines form a unique pattern in each species. For instance while in elephants, these lines always meet an angle greater than 110 degrees., in mammoths they form a very convenient for differentiating between the ivories of mammoth and elephants. Q1). What was the question that turned up during the investigations that followed the confiscation of gall bladders? a) Can experts easily distinguish between animal gall bladders and shriveled mangoes. b) Can experts easily distinguish between the gall bladders of bear and that of pig’s c) It is a matter of experience or of medical expertise that enables doctors to identify the species of the animals to whom the gall bladders belong. d) Is the police force better than the doctors at identifying the species of the animals to whom the gall bladders belong to. e) Is forensic science of any help in identifying the species of the animals from whom the gall bladders have come Q2). Why did Sravan kumar say that gall bladders have been taken out of pigs? i) Because pigs do not figure among the five schedules in the Indian wild-life protection act of 1973. ii) Because he wanted to avoid prosecution iii) Because he did not consider it morally wrong to say so iv) Because he had bribed an forensic scientist to support his statements a) I only b) I & ii only c) I, ii & iii only d) I, ii, iii & iv only Q3). Why are the gall bladders of bears smuggled? i) Because they fetch lot of money ii) Because they are apparently useless iii) Because they are used for making drugs a) I only b) Ii only c) I & ii only d) I & iii only e) Iii only Q4). Which of the following statements is correct ? a) The weired looking things are shriveled black mangoes b) The ‘ursus arctos is abellinus’ is a protected species c) The gall bladders of bears do not sell in the international market d) Sravan kumar was not a smuggler e) Sravan kumar was able to go scot-free by convincing the authorities that the gall bladders came from pigs Q5). What did Sravan kumar base his hopes on? a) The lack of expertise in the field of forensic science b) The fact that the gall bladders had been taken from bears and from pigs c) The fact that the gall bladders of large mammals look alike d) The fact that the intact gall bladders sell in the international market e) The fact that the forensic science is known to cater to solving murders, killings or assasinations Q6). Why did the airport police seek the author’s help? a) Because he is a detcetive b) Because he is a lawyer with extensive knowledge in the field of wildlife protection c) Bnecause he is an expert in the field of forensic science d) Because he is a foreigner setlled in India e) Because he is a great champion of wildlife protection in India Q7). What was the legal dilemna? a) Whether ro prosecute Sravan kumar or to let him go scot-free b) To detremine whther the gall bladders belonged to bears or pigs c) To decide whether bear is an endagered species d) To decide whether pig is an endangered species e) To determine whether forensic science aid should be sought only to solve murders ot to solve any legal disputes Q8). Who are the culprits who need to be punished ? i) Poachers ii) Those who kill animals for their organs iii) Those who hunt protected animals for fun a) I & II only b) I only c) I & III only d) II only e) I, II & III only Q9). Why is it convenient for criminals to claim that ivory has come from valid source? a) Because mammoths and mastodons have become exticnt b) Because ivory comes from as many as fifteen sources c) Because it is possible for one to distinguish between one kind of ivory to another d) Because of elephants is prohibited in many countries e) Because mammoths have tasks which are very similar to synthetic ivory Q10). What is the best way of distinguishing ivory coming from various sources? a) By testing whether the ivory contains traces of iron b) Bvy scrutinizing it closely to see that it is darker than elephant ivory c) By over serving the pattern of tubules on the ivory d) By feeling the texture to note the difference e) By extracting the tissue and getting it examined by a forensic sciebtist    1  1013
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After years of good performance. Happy homes apartment building was sold in 2002 for $20, 00,000 and the new owners refurnished all apartment units. In 2003 the apartment building was re-opened. Please analyse the income statement below and explain the income trends. The building has 1600units was built in 1971, and the current loan balance is $16,395,772. Period ended Statement classification (wi) 31/12/06 31/12/07 31/12/08 31/12/09 Occupancy 95% 90% 92% 95% Base rent $1,100,000 $990,000 $950,000 $990,000 Laundry vending $12,000 $11,000 $11,000 $30,000 Parking income $42,000 $40,000 $41,000 $60,000 Other income $3,000 $8,000 $21,000 $20,000 Effective gross income $1,157,000 $1,049,000 $1,023,000 $1,100,000 464
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Agonistic behavior, or aggression, is exhibited by most of the more than three million species of animals on this planet. Animal behaviorists still disagree on a comprehensive definition of the term, hut aggressive behavior can be loosely described as any action that harms an adversary or compels it to retreat. Aggression may serve many purposes, such as Food gathering, establishing territory, and enforcing social hierarchy. In a general Darwinian sense, however, the purpose of aggressive behavior is to increase the individual animal’s—and thus, the species’—chance of survival. Aggressive behavior may he directed at animals of other species, or it may be conspecific—that is, directed at members of an animal’s own species. One of the most common examples of conspecific aggression occurs in the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies. In a hierarchy, social dominance is usually established according to physical superiority; the classic example is that of a pecking order among domestic fowl. The dominance hierarchy may be viewed as a means of social control that reduces the incidence of attack within a group. Once established, the hierarchy is rarely threatened by disputes because the inferior animal immediately submits when confronted by a superior. Two basic types of aggressive behavior are common to most species: attack and defensive threat. Each type involves a particular pattern of physiological and behavioral responses, which tends not to vary regardless of the stimulus that provokes it. For example, the pattern of attack behavior in cats involves a series of movements, such as stalking, biting, seizing with the forepaws and scratching with tile hind legs, that changes very little regardless of the stimulus—that is, regardless of who or what the cat is attacking. The cat’s defensive threat response offers another set of closely linked physiological and behavioral patterns. The cardiovascular system begins to pump blood at a faster rate, in preparation for sudden physical activity. The eves narrow and the ears flatten against the side of the cat’s head for protection, and other vulnerable areas of the body such as the stomach and throat are similarly contracted. Growling or hissing noises and erect fur also signal defensive threat. As with the attack response, this pattern of responses is generated with little variation regardless of the nature of the stimulus. Are these aggressive patterns of attack and defensive threat innate, genetically programmed, or are they learned? The answer seems to be a combination of both. A mouse is helpless at birth, but by its l2th day of life can assume a defensive threat position by backing up on its hind legs. By the time it is one month old, the mouse begins to exhibit the attack response. Nonetheless, copious evidence suggests that animals learn and practice aggressive behavior; one need look no further than the sight of a kitten playing with a ball of string. All the elements of attack—stalking, pouncing, biting, and shaking—are part of the game that prepares the kitten for more serious situations later in life. 7) The passage asserts that animal social hierarchies are generally stable because: a) the behavior responses of the group are known by all its members. b) the defensive threat posture quickly stops most conflicts. c) inferior animals usually defer to their physical superior. d) the need for mutual protection from other species inhibits conspecific aggression. 8) According to the author, what is the most significant physiological change undergone by a cat assuming the defensive threat position? a) An increase in cardiovascular activity b) A sudden narrowing of the eyes c) A contraction of the abdominal muscles d) The author does not say which change is most significant 9) Based on the information in the passage about agonistic behavior, it is reasonable to conclude that: I. the purpose of agonistic behavior is to help ensure the survival of the species. II. agonistic behavior is both innate and learned. III. conspecific aggression is more frequent than i aggression. a) I only b) II only c) I and II only d) I,II and III only 10) Which of the following would be most in accord with the information presented in the passage? a) The aggressive behavior of sharks is closely inked to their need to remain in constant motion. b) fine inability of newborn mice to exhibit the attack response proves that aggressive behavior must be learned. c) Most animal species that do riot exhibit aggressive behavior are prevented from doing so by environmental factors. d) Members of a certain species of hawk use the same method to prey on both squirrels and gophers. 11) The author suggests that the question of whether agonistic behavior is genetically programmed or learned: a) still generates considerable controversy among animal behaviorists. b) was first investigated through experiments on mice. c) is outdated since most scientists now believe the genetic element to be most important. d) has been the subject of extensive clinical study. 12) Which of the following topics related to agonistic behavior is NOT explicitly addressed in the passage? a) The physiological changes that accompany attack behavior in cats b) The evolutionary purpose of aggression c) Conspecific aggression that occurs in dominance hierarchies d) The relationship between play and aggression 13) The author of this passage is primarily concerned with: a) analyzing the differences between attack behavior and defensive threat behavior. b) introducing a subject currently debated among animal behaviorists. c) providing a general overview of aggressive behavior in animals. d) illustrating various manifestations of agonistic behavior among mammals. 487
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