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The mosses increase the amount of solid and the death and
decay of the older mosses often produce may on the rock
surface. This mat has great water holding capacity. Many
herbs first short lived annuals and later biennial and
perennial, and xerophytes grasses make their appearance. The
roots of these plants accelerate the process of rock
disintegration. The soil increases and so does humus due to
the death and decay of these plants. Eveaporation from the
soil deceases and humidity increases.
1.Shurb stage:- Xeric shrub new appear. The herbaceous
plants of the preceding stage now shaded, tend to disappear.
The roots of the shrub further corrode the rock which is now
more of less completely covered with soil. The solid is
further enriched by humus formed form fallen leaves and
strings. The soil is shaded and evaporation from it reduced.
Wind movement is retarded and humidity increased. All these
condition are favorable for the growth of trees and
unfavorable for the former processors of the land which
2.Climax forest:-The first species of trees to appear xeric.
Their growth is stunted and they are for spaces. Therir
seedlings are shade intolerant. More solid is formed fom the
wealthering of rocks and the humus. Moisture gradually
increases. Humidity also increases. The trees now become
taller and their growth denser. Under their increwssing
shade, the light demanding shrubs and earlier treesgives
place to more shade tolerant and mesophytic species of
trees. A new herbaceous and shurubly vegetation adapted to
the humid air and a mossture and richer soil, develops in
the shade of the forest floor.
From these we know that succession is convergent. Whatever
the condition of initial habitat.
Beginning as a hydrosere or xerosere. The succession in the
above cases ends in a mesophytic forests.
It will also be seen, that a succession whether a hydrosere
or xerosere is more or less characterised by a similar
series of stages. (1) These are nudation or formation of
(2) Excessive establishment of and maturation of the
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