Please Help Members By Posting Answers For Below Questions
Agonistic behavior, or aggression, is exhibited by most of
the more than three million species of animals on this
planet. Animal behaviorists still disagree on a
comprehensive definition of the term, hut aggressive
behavior can be loosely described as any action that harms
an adversary or compels it to retreat. Aggression may serve
many purposes, such as Food gathering, establishing
territory, and enforcing social hierarchy. In a general
Darwinian sense, however, the purpose of aggressive behavior
is to increase the individual animal’s—and thus, the
species’—chance of survival.
Aggressive behavior may he directed at animals of other
species, or it may be conspecific—that is, directed at
members of an animal’s own species. One of the most common
examples of conspecific aggression occurs in the
establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies. In a
hierarchy, social dominance is usually established according
to physical superiority; the classic example is that of a
pecking order among domestic fowl. The dominance hierarchy
may be viewed as a means of social control that reduces the
incidence of attack within a group. Once established, the
hierarchy is rarely threatened by disputes because the
inferior animal immediately submits when confronted by a
Two basic types of aggressive behavior are common to most
species: attack and defensive threat. Each type involves a
particular pattern of physiological and behavioral
responses, which tends not to vary regardless of the
stimulus that provokes it. For example, the pattern of
attack behavior in cats involves a series of movements, such
as stalking, biting, seizing with the forepaws and
scratching with tile hind legs, that changes very little
regardless of the stimulus—that is, regardless of who or
what the cat is attacking.
The cat’s defensive threat response offers another set of
closely linked physiological and behavioral patterns. The
cardiovascular system begins to pump blood at a faster rate,
in preparation for sudden physical activity. The eves narrow
and the ears flatten against the side of the cat’s head for
protection, and other vulnerable areas of the body such as
the stomach and throat are similarly contracted. Growling or
hissing noises and erect fur also signal defensive threat.
As with the attack response, this pattern of responses is
generated with little variation regardless of the nature of
Are these aggressive patterns of attack and defensive threat
innate, genetically programmed, or are they learned? The
answer seems to be a combination of both. A mouse is
helpless at birth, but by its l2th day of life can assume a
defensive threat position by backing up on its hind legs. By
the time it is one month old, the mouse begins to exhibit
the attack response. Nonetheless, copious evidence suggests
that animals learn and practice aggressive behavior; one
need look no further than the sight of a kitten playing with
a ball of string. All the elements of attack—stalking,
pouncing, biting, and shaking—are part of the game that
prepares the kitten for more serious situations later in life.
7) The passage asserts that animal social hierarchies are
generally stable because:
a) the behavior responses of the group are known by all its
b) the defensive threat posture quickly stops most conflicts.
c) inferior animals usually defer to their physical superior.
d) the need for mutual protection from other species
inhibits conspecific aggression.
8) According to the author, what is the most significant
physiological change undergone by a cat assuming the
defensive threat position?
a) An increase in cardiovascular activity
b) A sudden narrowing of the eyes
c) A contraction of the abdominal muscles
d) The author does not say which change is most significant
9) Based on the information in the passage about agonistic
behavior, it is reasonable to conclude that:
I. the purpose of agonistic behavior is to help ensure the
survival of the species.
II. agonistic behavior is both innate and learned.
III. conspecific aggression is more frequent than i aggression.
a) I only
b) II only
c) I and II only
d) I,II and III only
10) Which of the following would be most in accord with the
information presented in the passage?
a) The aggressive behavior of sharks is closely inked to
their need to remain in constant motion.
b) fine inability of newborn mice to exhibit the attack
response proves that aggressive behavior must be learned.
c) Most animal species that do riot exhibit aggressive
behavior are prevented from doing so by environmental factors.
d) Members of a certain species of hawk use the same method
to prey on both squirrels and gophers.
11) The author suggests that the question of whether
agonistic behavior is genetically programmed or learned:
a) still generates considerable controversy among animal
b) was first investigated through experiments on mice.
c) is outdated since most scientists now believe the genetic
element to be most important.
d) has been the subject of extensive clinical study.
12) Which of the following topics related to agonistic
behavior is NOT explicitly addressed in the passage?
a) The physiological changes that accompany attack behavior
b) The evolutionary purpose of aggression
c) Conspecific aggression that occurs in dominance hierarchies
d) The relationship between play and aggression
13) The author of this passage is primarily concerned with:
a) analyzing the differences between attack behavior and
defensive threat behavior.
b) introducing a subject currently debated among animal
c) providing a general overview of aggressive behavior in
d) illustrating various manifestations of agonistic behavior
please give me some tips for the placement in the TCS.
write a program to generate address labels using structures?
Write a C program that will accept a hexadecimal number as
input and then display a menu that will
permit any of the following operations to be carried out:
Display the hexadecimal equivalent of the one's complement.
(b) Carry out a masking operation and then display the
hexadecimal equivalent of the result.
(c) Carry out a bit shifting operation and then display the
hexadecimal equivalent of the result.
If the masking operation is selected, prompt the user lor
the type of operation (bitwise and, bitwise exclusive
or, or bitwise or) and then a (hexadecimal) value for the
mask. If the bit shifting operation is selected.
prompt the user for the type of shift (left or right), and
then the number of bits.
Test the program with several different (hexadecimal) input
values of your own choice.
write a program to convert a expression in polish
notation(postfix) to inline(normal) something like make
723+* (2+3) x 7 (not sure) just check out its mainly
printing expression in postfix form to infix.
I need a help with a program:
Write a C program that uses data input in determining the
whole of points A and a whole of circles B. Find two points
in A so that the line which passes through them, cut through
the maximum number of circles.
how to build a exercise findig min number of e heap with list
Explain the process of converting a Tree into a Binary Tree.
The OS is a program that uses various data structures. Like
all programs in execution, you can determine the
performance and other behavior of the OS by inspecting its
state - the values stored in its data structures. In this
part of the assignment, we study some aspects of the
organization and behavior of a Linux system by observing
values of kernel data structures exposed through the /proc
virtual file system.
The /proc virtual file system:
Linux uses the /proc file system to collect information
from kernel data structures. The /proc implementation
provided with Linux can read many different kernel data
structures. If you cd to /proc on a Linux machine, you will
see a number of files and directories at that location.
Files in this directory subtree each corresponds to some
kernel data structure. The subdirectories with numeric
names contain virtual files with information about the
process whose process ID is the same as the directory name.
Files in /proc can be read like ordinary ASCII files. You
can open each file and read it using library routines such
as fgets() or fscanf(). The proc (5) manual page explains
the virtual files and their content available through
the /proc file system.
Requirements in detail:
In this part, you are asked to write a program to report
the behavior of the Linux kernel. Your program should run
in two different versions. The default version should print
the following values on stdout:
• Processor type
• Kernel version
• The amount of memory configured into this computer
• Amount of time since the system was last booted
A second version of the program should run continuously and
print lists of the following dynamic values (each value in
the lists is the average over a specified interval):
• The percentage of time the processor(s) spend in
user mode, system mode, and the percentage of time the
processor(s) are idle
• The amount and percentage of available (or free)
• The rate (number of sectors per second) of disk
read/write in the system
• The rate (number per second) of context switches in
• The rate (number per second) of process creations
in the system
If your program (compiled executable) is called proc_parse,
running it without any parameter should print out
information required for the first version. Running it with
two parameters "proc_parse <read_rate> <printout_rate>"
should print out information required for the second
version. read_rate represents the time interval between two
consecutive reads on the /proc file system. printout_rate
indicates the time interval over which the average values
should be calculated. Both read_rate and printout_rate are
in seconds. For instance, proc_parse 2 60 should read
kernel data structures once every two seconds. It should
then print out averaged kernel statistics once a minute
(average of 30 samples). The second version of your program
doesn't need to terminate.
Read the following data in two different files
File A: aaaaaaaadddddddd
File B: 11111111
By using the above files print the following output or
write it in the
Other file as follows
Write a C program on Centralized OLTP, Decentralized OLTP
using locking mechanism, Semaphore using locking mechanism,
Shared memory, message queues, channel of communication,
sockets and a simple program on Saving bank application
program using OLTP in IPC?
how to print the character with maximum occurence and print
that number of occurence too in a string given ?
provide an example of the Group by clause, when would you
use this clause
A set of N billiard balls are set on a one-dimensional
table. The table is 1 meter long,
set north-south with two pockets at either side. Each ball
has zero width and there is
no friction so it is moving with a fixed velocity of either
northward or southward and
bounces back in a perfect elastic collision from other
balls it encounter on its way (or
drop into one of the pockets).
Your job is to keep track of the balls movements.
Please write a program that gets the initial place, speed
and direction of all
the balls and gives the position of a specific ball after t
The first line contains the number of scenarios.
Each one of the other lines in the input contains a
The first number, N, is the number of balls; followed by N
pairs of numbers: the
distance in centimeters from the south end of the table and
the speed (positive speed
meaning it moves northward); the last two numbers are the
number i of the target ball
you should track and the time T in seconds.
The output is a single number for each line which is the
place (distance in centimeters
from the south end of the table) of the tracked ball after
Note: There is no new line character at the end of the
1 50 1 1 1000
1 50 1 1 6
1 60 -2 1 6
2 10 1 95 -1 2 30
2 10 1 95 -1 2 60
Write the program with at least two functions to solve the
following problem. The members of the board of a small
university are considering voting for a pay increase for
their 10 faculty members. They are considering a pay
increase of 8%. Write a program that will prompt for and
accept the current salary for each of the faculty members,
then calculate and display their individual pay increases.
At the end of the program, print the total faculty payroll
before and after the pay increase, and the total pay