1 4 8 means cement sand (fine aggregate) metal 20 mm (coarse
The ratio is based on volume and not in weight.
one bag of cement is 1.25 cubic foot
Therefore multiply the fine and coarse aggregate with 1.25.
Thus you have to use 1.25 cft of cement (one bag) and 5 cft
of sand and 10 cft of coarse aggregate.
As for sand is concerned bulkage allowance is to considered
according to which the quantity may slightly vary
For M-10 grade nominal mix design is 1:3:6
For M-7.5 grade nominal mix design is 1:4:8
As per IS 456:2000, Nominal mix concrete may be used for concrete grades M-20 or lower. Design mix can be arrived with several trial mix design as per guideline proposed in IS 10262:2009. Example my trail design mix for M 10 is 1:3.5:6.10
Hope this will be useful for you...
In colomn reinforcement when dia of bar is going to change,
than what should be the lap length of bars weather it should
be of heigher dia bar lap length or it should the accordance
with new dia bar. the grade of concrete is same.