practically for slabs steel is caluclated in this manner:
for a given room of size 6.5x5.2,first we provide main reinforcement in shorter span and distribution steel in longer span.so,here we provide main reinforcement in breadth side(i.e... 5.2m side).and distribution in other side.so,we preapre a tabular form for a given spacing and dia of steel.
then we caluclate no of bars.therefore,no.of bars=length/spacing.next bar length is caluclated according to sections given.i mean there will be given different sections for rooms and given a brief diagram for steel placing.so both top mat and bottom mat we caluclate the bar length.for both main and distribution steel.to find qty=bar lengthxno.of barsx((dxd)/162)xunit weight of steel.here note that length and bar lengths are different.length means room size and bar length means length of bar with projections inside the room.
l spacing no dia barlength qty
top mat 6.5 0.15 44 10 this is acc to
bottom mat 6.5 0.15 44 10 5.2+0.23+0.2
top mat 5.2 0.2 26 8 6.5+0.23+0.2
bottom mat = 0.2 8 6.5+0.23+0.2
=same as main steel top mat
here 0.23 is wall thickness.so both sides 0.23 means we take one 0.23 and add bending value as 0.2 in most cases
it will be depend on the area. just calculate the area then
spacing.,.,after than total length/ spacing = no of bar. use
the formula d*d/162 = total steel waight per meter.,.,.
multiply total to total length= total steel in the rcc slab
The above are to design steel requirments in a slab.
However to calculate amount of steel in a slab u simply need
drawings. A simple assumtion of 10d (i.e:- 10 * diameter )
is ok for bent up calculations.
A bill was raised by contractor which read as follows
1.) Excavation in normal soil upto 1.5m - 250 cum
2.) Excavation in normal soil 1.5m to 3m - 240 cum
3.) Excavation in soft rock - 350 cum
4.) Excavation in hard rock - 250 cum
5.) Filling with available soil - 825 cum
6.) Filling with bought out soil - 1100 cum
How can I verify the above quantities, especially for item
no. 5 & 6?
What checks are necessary before releasing the bill ?