if we consider the temperature parameters of the
America....then it is almost cool all through the
year,excepting 2 to 3 months maximum.
we all know that in conductors, heating the conductors will
lower its resistance,similarly,cooling also increases the
so for preventing the losses, the driving current must be
high, but to maintain the power constant the voltage is
reduced to 110V. So to make the current high,frequency will
be high,and they found that losses were low on operation of
equipment at 60Hz than at 50Hz.
but when u take tropical places almost the whole operation
is with 50Hz.
but here arises another question that,equator passes through
America also,but even then they use 60Hz for their operation.?
My answer is, there will be no different power generations
with different ratings of voltage and frequencies,as all the
states are interconnected just similar to other countries to
meet the demand of power.
so for small number of states the whole country is not going
to change the operation of frequency.
The reasons for power supply frequency in India to be 50 Hz
and in US to be 60 HZ are:
1.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS :::::The average annual temperature
of India is greater than US
2.POWER GENERATION REASONS :To generate power of that
frequency it costs alot and the size of the alternator is
huge and it costs an incredible amount which we cant afford
3.EDDY CURRENT LOSSES :As frequency increases eddy current
and hysteriss losses increasesand hence power loss also
i think there is no technical reason behind the generation
of power at 50Hz in India and 60Hz in America. It is just
the standardization of country. America firstly designad
their equipments at 60Hz and after that India and other
countries designad their equipments at 50Hz.
Early in the history or electricity, Thomas Edison's
company was distributing DC electricity at 110 volts in the
Then Nikola Tesla the devised a system of three-phase AC
240 volts. Three-phase meant that three alternating
currents slightly out
of phase were combined in order to even out the great
voltage occurring in AC electricity. He had calculated that
60 cycles per
second or 60Hz was the most effective frequency. Tesla
to reduce the voltage to 110 volts for safety reasons.
Europe goes to 50Hz:
With the backing of the Westinghouse Company, Tesla's AC
system became the
standard in the United States. Meanwhile, the German
company AEG started
generating electricity and became a virtual monopoly in
decided to use 50Hz instead of 60Hz to better fit their
but they kept the voltage at 110V.
50Hz AC has greater losses and is not as efficient as 60HZ.
Due to the slower speed 50Hz electrical generators are 20%
than 60Hz generators. Electrical transmission at 50Hz is
about 10-15% less
efficient. 50Hz transformers require larger windings and
motors are less efficient than those meant to run at 60Hz.
They are more
costly to make to handle the electrical losses and the
generated at the lower frequency.
Europe goes to 220V
Europe stayed at 110V AC until the 1950s, just after World
War II. They
then switched over to 220V for better efficiency in
transmission. Great Britain not only switched to 220V, but
changed from 60Hz to 50Hz to follow the European lead.
Since many people
did not yet have electrical appliances in Europe after the
change-over was not that expensive for them.
U.S. stays at 110V, 60Hz
The United States also considered converting to 220V for
home use but felt
it would be too costly, due to all the 110V electrical
had. A compromise was made in the U.S. in that 220V would
come into the
house where it would be split to 110V to power most
household appliances such as the electric stove and
electric clothes dryer
would be powered at 220V.
My opinion on this is that even though high frequency can
save your cost in manufacture, but it also cause
significant loss in power transmission
especially for large scale power systems. So we need trade-
In the debate 50 - 60 Hz, Prof Trevor Blackburn treated the
subject very well in the case of
transformers, cf below reference, appendix I.2. There are
several loss components that actually
increase with higher frequency (some even increase
proportional to the square of the frequency),
such as hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, losses caused
by harmonics and skin effect.
Higher frequencies would limit the size of transmission
lines and power
transmitted on high voltage transmission systems.
@Thuranga: Indian economy will surpass the US economy by
in US the frequency is 60hz and 110v supply. but in india
is about 240v,50hz supply. for a particular load say 100kw
the current will be 0.416A. but in US the same load will
consume about 0.9A. here the thing is the heat produced in
the cable bcoz of the flow of current will be large in US
compare to india. since US is a cold country they can use
this level but not by india.
according to the the formula n=120f/p, we can only obtain
the frequency of 60 hz,if the number of pole is 2.5 so usa
is able to developed 2.5 pole machine but india cannot.SO
don't think why power generation in india is at 50 hz while
in america its 60 hz.THINK THIS THAT WHO TO MAKE 2.5 POLE
we all know that the power generation in India is at 220v at frequency 50hz but in America it is 110v at frequency 60hz,the main reason behind this is that the impedance of inductor increases with frequency and that of capacitor decreases.if we find over all impedance of the combination of inductor,capacitor and resister we can see that the current supply would increase with a little decrease of frequency.the formula for current calculation is given as..