Design patterns are mainly of three types
Creational patterns are ones that create objects for you,
rather than having you instantiate objects directly. This
gives your program more flexibility in deciding which
objects need to be created for a given case.
Structural patterns help you compose groups of objects into
larger structures, such as complex user interfaces or
Behavioral patterns help you define the communication
between objects in your system and how the flow is
controlled in a complex program.
8 Types of design patterns
The types of problems commonly encountered during software
development are classified in categories. The patterns used
in each of these categories are hence organized together for
a better understanding. The design patterns described here
apply to these categories.
8.1 Fundamental Design Patterns
Fundamental Patterns are the basic patterns used in
designing individual classes. They are usually used in
conjunction with other patterns, like structural and
behavior, in order to define the structure and behavior of
Some of the different types of Fundamental Patterns are:
• Delegation: It is a way to extend and reuse the
functionality of a class by writing an additional class with
added functionality that uses instances of the original
class to provide the original functionality.
• Interface: Keep a class that uses data and services
provided by instances of other classes independent of those
classes by having it access those instances through an
• Immutable: It increases the robustness of objects that
share references to the same object by forbidding any of the
object's state information to change after the object is
• Proxy: It is a way to call the method indirectly from the
class that implements it. More details on this follow.
The proxy pattern forces method calls to an object to occur
indirectly through a proxy object that acts as a surrogate
for the other object, delegating method calls to that object.
A proxy object is an object that receives method calls on
behalf of another object. Client objects call the proxy
object's methods. The proxy object's methods do not directly
provide the service that its clients expect. Instead, the
proxy object's methods call the methods of the object that
provides the actual service.
Proxy objects generally use share a common interface or
super class with the service providing object. That makes it
possible for client objects to be unaware that they are
calling the methods of a proxy object rather than the
methods of the actual service-providing object. Transparent
management of another object's services is the basic reason
for using a proxy.
Depending on the behavior of a proxy object, it can be a
remote proxy, access proxy, virtual proxy etc.
• It is not possible for a service-providing object to
provide service at a time or place that is convenient.
• There are situations in which client does not or can not
reference an object directly, but wants to still interact
with the object.
• Access to a service-providing object must be controlled
without adding complexity to the service-providing object or
coupling the service to the access control policy.
Transparent management of a service-providing object can be
accomplished by forcing all access to the service-providing
object through a proxy object. To achieve this, the proxy
object and the service-providing object must either be
instances of a common super class or implement a common
The proxy pattern is not very useful unless it implements
some particular service management policy.
Some of the common situations where proxy pattern is
• Remote proxy: provides a local representative for an
object in a different address space
• Virtual proxy: creates expensive objects on demand
• Protection proxy: controls access to the original or
service providing object
• Cache proxy: provides temporary storage of the results of
expensive target operations so that multiple clients can
share the results
• Firewall proxy: protects target from bad clients
• Synchronization proxy: provides multiple accesses to a
The service provided by a service-providing object is
managed in a manner transparent to that object and its clients.
Without any specific management policy, the implementation
of the Proxy pattern simply involves creating a class that
shares a common super class or interface with a service
providing class and delegates operations to instances of the
service providing class.
8.2 Creational Patterns
Creational patterns provide guidance as to how to create
objects when their creation requires making decisions. These
decisions will typically involve dynamically deciding which
class to instantiate or which objects an object will
delegate responsibility to.
The different types of creational patterns are:
• Abstract factory: Provide an interface for creating
families of related or dependent objects without specifying
their concrete classes
• Builder: Separate the construction of a complex object
from its representation so that the same construction
process can create different representations.
• Factory Method: Define an interface for creating an
object, but let subclasses decide which class to
instantiate. Factory method lets a class defer instantiation
• Prototype: Specify the kinds of objects to create using a
prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying
• Singleton: To allow only one instance at most for a class.
More details follow.
Ensure a class only has one instance, and provide a global
point of access to it. All objects that use an instance of
that class use the same instance.
It is important for some classes to have exactly one
instance. These classes usually involve the central
management of a resource. The resource may be external, as
is the case with an object that manages the reuse of
database connections. The resource may be internal, such as
an object that keeps an error count and other statistics for
• There must be exactly one instance of a class, and it must
be accessible to clients from a well-known access point.
• When the sole instance should be extensible by
sub-classing, and clients should be able to use an extended
instance without modifying their code.
A singleton class has a static variable that refers to the
one instance of the class that you want to use. This
instance is created when the class is loaded into memory.
The class should be implemented in such a way that prevents
other classes from creating any additional instances of a
singleton class. To access to the instance of a singleton
class, the class provides a static method.
• Because the Singleton class encapsulates its sole
instance, it can have strict control over how and when
clients access it.
• Sub-classing a singleton class is awkward and results in
imperfectly encapsulated classes. To subclass a singleton
class, its constructor must not be private. If the subclass
needs to be a singleton also, it will be necessary to
override static methods like getInstance() (that returns the
static instance). Java does not allow overriding static methods.
The class must be coded in a way that prevents other classes
from directly creating instances of the class. All of class'
constructors must be private. At least one private
constructor must be declared, otherwise a default public
constructor will be generated.
If a singleton class' object is garbage collected, the next
it time it is used, a new instance of the class will be
created and this will result in re-initialization. This may
create inconsistency depending on the usage of the class.
The other option is to always refer to the object, directly
or indirectly through a live thread so that it is never
8.3 Structural Patterns
Structural patterns are concerned with how classes and
objects are composed to form larger structures.
A few different types of structural patterns are:
• Adapter: To map an available interface for a class to
another interface clients expect. More details follow.
• Bridge: De-couple an abstraction from its implementation
so that the two can vary independently.
• Composite: Compose objects into tree structures to
represent part-whole hierarchies. Composite lets client
treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly.
• Decorator: Attach additional responsibilities to an object
dynamically. Decorators provide a flexible alternative to
sub-classing for extending functionality.
Convert the interface of a class into another interface
clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that
couldn't otherwise because of incompatible interfaces. A
change in the implementation at any level of the client
interfaces is completely transparent to the clients. This
interface is also called Wrapper.
Suppose you are building an application that relies on third
party libraries. You want to use these libraries for ease of
use, so that you do not have to write access methods to the
actual data representation. One of the objectives here
should be that you want to keep your usage of the third
party libraries de-coupled from your code. This gives you a
flexibility of being able to change the third party
libraries if you feel you have a better option, or simply
because they do not perform as expected. Additionally, if a
newer version of the libraries becomes available, having an
adapter interface will allow you to migrate to the newer
version very easily without having to change any of the
• If there is a need to use an existing class, and its
interface does not match the one that is needed by the client.
• If a reusable class needs to be created that cooperates
with unrelated or unforeseen classes, i.e. classes that
don't necessarily have compatible interfaces.
Suppose you have a client that uses a particular set of
classes. You want to extend the classes that you use with
the client, or replace the classes with the newer version.
The classes that you use implement an interface that the
client uses, but the newer version of classes do not use.
You can very easily write an adapter that will implement the
interface that clients use. For the implementation of this
adapter, you can use the methods available with the newer
version of the classes. The roles that classes and
interfaces play are:
• Client: The class that calls a method of another class
through an interface.
• Target Interface: This interface declares the method that
a Client class calls.
• Adapter: This class implements the Target Interface. It
implements the method that the client classes by having it
call a method of the Adaptee class, which does not implement
the Target Interface.
• Adaptee: This class does not implement the Target
Interface method but has a method that you want the Client
class to call.
• The Adapter adapts Adaptee to Target by committing to a
concrete Adaptee class. As a consequence, a class adapter
won't work if we want to adapt a class and all its subclasses.
• Adapter can override some of Adaptee's behavior, since
Adapter is a subclass of Adaptee.
• The client and the adaptee classes remain independent of
The implementation of the adapter class is straightforward.
An issue that needs top be considered when implementing the
pattern is how the adapter objects know what instances of
the adaptee class to call. There are two approaches to it:
• Pass a reference to the adaptee object as a parameter to
the adapter object's constructor or one of its methods. This
allows the adapter object to be used with any instance or
possibly multiple instances of the adaptee class.
• Make the adapter class an inner class of the adaptee
class. This simplifies the association between the adapter
object and the adaptee object by making it automatic. It
also makes the association flexible.
8.4 Behavioral Patterns
Behavioral patterns describe patterns of communication
between objects. These patterns characterize complex control
flow that's difficult to track at run-time. They shift the
focus away from flow control to concentrate just on the way
objects are interconnected.
Some of the behavioral patterns are:
• Iterator: Provide a way to access the elements of an
aggregate object sequentially without exposing its
• Observer: Also called Publish-Subscribe pattern. More
details to follow.
• State: Allow an object to alter its behavior when it's
internal state changes. The object will appear to change its
• Strategy: To have a set of algorithm implementations to
chosen from at run-time. More details to follow.
• Visitor: Represent an operation to be performed on the
elements of an object structure. Visitor lets you define a
new operation without changing the classes of the elements
on which it operates.
Allows objects to dynamically register dependencies between
objects, so that an object will notify those objects that
are dependent on it when its state changes. Usually works
with one-to-many dependency between objects. It is also
called Publish-Subscribe pattern.
Suppose you are building a client-server application for
product sales. Since it is heavily dependent on the latest
specials available, while a representative is on call with
the customer, they should be able to offer the specials to
the customer as soon as they are available. This type of
model requires that as soon as the data changes, or
promotions are added, it should be notified to the client
that uses the data to be presented to the customer. This
will enable the client to automatically update with the
promotions, and hence the customer can get the benefits.
Since there could be multiple clients accessing the same
product at a time, all of them will need to be notified as
soon as an update takes place.
• We are implementing two independent classes. An instance
of one will need to be able to notify other objects when its
state changes. An instance of the other will need to be
notified when an object it has a dependency on changes
state. However, the two classes are not intended to work
with each other and should not have direct knowledge of each
other. These two objects should not be tightly coupled.
• There is a one-to-many relationship that may require an
object to notify multiple objects that are dependent on it
when it changes its state.
Here are the descriptions that classes and interfaces play
in the Observer Pattern:
• Subject: It knows its observers. Any number of observer
objects may observe a subject. It provides an interface for
attaching and detaching Observer objects.
• Observer: Defines an updating interface for objects that
should be notified of changes in a subject.
• Concrete Subject: Stores state of interest to Concrete
Observer objects. Sends a notification to its observers when
its state changes.
• Concrete Observer: Maintains a reference to a Concrete
Subject object. Stores state that should stay consistent
with the subject's state. Implements the Observer updating
interface to keep its state consistent with the subject's state.
• Delivering notifications can take a long time if an object
has a large number of objects to deliver notifications to.
This can happen because one object has many observers
directly registered to receive its notifications. It can
also happen because an object has many indirect observers
because its notifications are cascaded by other objects.
• A more serious problem happens if there are cyclic
dependencies. Objects call each other's notify methods until
the stack fills up.
• The notification that a subject sends needn't specify its
receiver. The notification is broadcast automatically to all
interested objects that subscribed to it. The subject
doesn't care how many observers exist; it is only
responsible to notify the observers. This gives a freedom to
add and remove observers at any time. It is up to the
observer to handle or ignore a notification.
• The simplest way for a subject to keep track of the
observers it should notify is to store references to them
explicitly in the subject. Such storage may be too expensive
when there are many subjects and few observers. One solution
is to maintain an associative lookup for subject-to-observer
mapping. Here, a subject with no observers does not incur
storage overhead, but there is an increase in cost of
accessing the observers.
• If an observer needs to be dependent on more than one
subject, it may be needed to tell the observer which subject
has changed. This can be achieved by passing the subject
itself as a parameter in the Update operation.
• Deleting a subject should not produce dangling references
in its observers. One way is to make the subject notify its
observers as it is deleted so that they can reset their
reference to it.
• The two models of notifications are Push and Pull model.
In the Push model, the subject sends all the updated
information as part of the notification itself, and the
observer can use it to update it self. In the Pull model,
the subject only sends minimum notification that it has
changes, and the observer then asks for details of changes
explicitly. In the push model, the subject has some
knowledge of its observers, whereas in pull model, this
knowledge is minimum. The push model may make observers less
reusable as it assumes certain things about observers that
may not be true for all observers. The pull model may be
inefficient since the observers have to get the changes from
the subject, with little help from subject.
Define a family of algorithms, encapsulate each one, and
make them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary
independently from clients that use it. It is also known as
Suppose you are service provider that evaluates credits for
client credit card companies. Each client may have a
different business rule to evaluate the credit that will
result in an approval or rejections for a credit card
application. Since you want to support multiple clients,
different policies will need to be implemented for credit
evaluation. Depending on the client that is submitting the
request, the appropriate evaluation policy class will be
called, and hence the appropriate algorithm will be used.
• Many related classes differ only in their behavior.
Strategies provide a way to configure a class with one of
• The clients for these classes do not need to know anything
about the implementations of their behavior. A common
interface for all behaviors will make it completely
transparent to the clients.
Here are the descriptions that classes and interfaces play
in the Strategy Pattern:
• Client: The client class delegates an operation to an
abstract class or interface. It does that without actually
knowing the actual class of the object it delegates the
operation to or how that class implements the operation.
• Abstract Strategy: This class provides a common way to
access the operation encapsulated by its subclasses. An
interface can also be used instead.
• Concrete Strategy: Classes in this role implement
alternative implementations of the operation that the Client
• Context: It is configured with concrete strategy object.
It maintains a reference to the strategy object. It may
define an interface that lets strategy access its data.
The Strategy pattern allows the behavior of client objects
to be dynamically determined on a per-object basis.
The Strategy pattern simplifies client objects by relieving
them of any responsibility for selecting behavior or
implementing alternate behaviors. It simplifies the code for
client objects by eliminating if and switch statements.
The strategy and context interfaces must give Concrete
Strategy efficient access to any data it needs from a
context, and vice versa. One approach is to have Context
pass data in parameters to Strategy operation. This keeps
Strategy and Context de-coupled. Another technique has a
context pass itself as an argument, and the strategy
requests data from the context explicitly. Alternatively,
the strategy can store a reference to its context,
eliminating the need to pass anything at all.
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