clubbing of science with functional,example zoology deals
with plants you can relate it with the procedure of
aplantation with management hw do u manage ur planatation
should give u the effective results,what r the plans that
u make?hw do u direct them?etc., coz management is nothing
but getting things done by others.
Yes ,It was a brave and challenging decision.I took it as
a welcoming oppurtunity to prove my adptability.I was quite
successful in my attempt to excel in new stream. This trait
has been a add-on to my personality.
Doing B.sc laid a firm foundation...was always inclined
towards management..so to understand the poliical social
economical and technological enviornment and understanding
the need of the hour where i wil be able to stand out in
terms of performance as far as other people are concerned
took a wise step of doin mba.....
I was very interested in zoology ,that's why i did .But as
far as career is concerned i always wanted to work in
private sector at managerial post ,also if u want to stay
there in the sector u need a technical hand that will
sharpen your skill of management.
I've done B.Sc(PCM)and MBA(FINANCE). In science, we can get
knowledge only about the subjects,what we study
particularly but MBA has the wide diversification from
which we can get aware of the things happening in the outer
world and can get knowlegde almost in all the various
aspects such as economically, politically etc....
one more reason:i was interested in Maths subject so want
to work in finance related jobs like banking,
If one always ought to act so as to produce the best
possible circumstances, then morality is extremely
demanding. No one could plausibly claim to have met the
requirements of this "simple principle." . . . It would
seem strange to punish those intending to do good by
sentencing them to an impossible task. Also, if the
standards of right conduct are as extreme as they seem,
then they will preclude the personal projects that humans
find most fulfilling.
From an analytic perspective, the potential extreme demands
of morality are not a "problem." A theory of morality is no
less valid simply because it asks great sacrifices. In
fact, it is difficult to imagine what kind of constraints
could be put on our ethical projects. Shouldn't we reflect
on our base prejudices, and not allow them to provide
boundaries for our moral reasoning? Thus, it is tempting to
simply dismiss the objections to the simple principle.
However, in Demands of Morality, Liam Murphy takes these
objections seriously for at least two distinct reasons.
First, discussion of the simple principle provides an
excellent vehicle for a discussion of morality in general.
Perhaps, in a way, this is Murphy's attempt at doing
philosophy "from the inside out.". . . Second, Murphy's
starting point tells us about the nature of his project.
Murphy must take seriously the collisions between moral
philosophy and our intuitive sense of right and wrong. He
[must do so] because his work is best interpreted as
intended to forge moral principles from our firm beliefs,
and not to proscribe beliefs given a set of moral
[Murphy] argues from our considered judgments rather than
to them. . . For example, Murphy cites our "simple but
firmly held" beliefs as supporting the potency of the over-
demandingness objection, and nowhere in the work can one
find a source of moral values divorced from human
Murphy does not tell us what set of "firm beliefs" we ought
to have. Rather, he speaks to an audience of well-
intentioned but unorganized moral realists, and tries to
give them principles that represent their considered moral
judgments. Murphy starts with this base sense of right and
wrong, but recognizes that it needs to be supplemented by
reason where our intuitions are confused or conflicting.
Perhaps Murphy is looking for the best interpretation of
our convictions, the same way certain legal scholars try to
find the best interpretation of our Constitution.
This approach has disadvantages. Primarily, Murphy's
arguments, even if successful, do not provide the kind of
motivating force for which moral philosophy has
traditionally searched. His work assumes and argues in
terms of an inner sense of morality, and his project seeks
to deepen that sense. Of course, it is quite possible that
the moral viewpoints of humans will not converge, and some
humans have no moral sense at all. Thus, it is very easy
for the moral skeptic to point out a lack of justification
and ignore the entire work.
On the other hand, Murphy's choice of a starting point
avoids many of the problems of moral philosophy. Justifying
the content of moral principles and granting a motivating
force to those principles is an extraordinary task. It
would be unrealistic to expect all discussions of moral
philosophy to derive such justifications. Projects that
attempt such a derivation have value, but they are hard
pressed to produce logical consequences for everyday life.
In the end, Murphy's strategy may have more practical
effect than its first-principle counterparts, which do not
seem any more likely to convince those that would reject
1) The author suggests that the application of
Murphy's philosophy to the situations of two different
a) would help to solve the problems of one group but
not of the other.
b) could result in the derivation of two radically
different moral principles.
c) would be contingent on the two groups sharing the
same fundamental beliefs.
d) could reconcile any differences between the two
2) Suppose an individual who firmly believes in
keeping promises has promised to return a weapon to a
person she knows to be extremely dangerous. According to
Murphy, which of the following, if true, would WEAKEN the
notion that she should return the weapon?
a) She also firmly believes that it is morally wrong
to assist in any way in a potentially violent act.
b) She believes herself to be well-intentioned in
matters of right and wrong.
c) The belief that one should keep promises is shared
by most members of her community.
d) She derived her moral beliefs from first-principle
3) The passage implies that a moral principle derived
from applying Murphy's philosophy to a particular group
would be applicable to another group if:
a) the first group recommended the principle to the
b) the moral viewpoints of the two groups do not
c) the members of the second group have no firmly held
d) the second group shares the same fundamental
beliefs as the first group.
4) According to the passage, the existence of
individuals who entirely lack a moral sense:
a) confirms the notion that moral principles should be
derived from the considered judgments of individuals.
b) suggests a potential disadvantage of Murphy's
c) supports Murphy's belief that reason is necessary
in cases in which intuitions are conflicting or confused.
d) proves that first-principle strategies of ethical
theorizing will have no more influence over the behavior of
individuals than will Murphy's philosophical approach.
5) Which of the following can be inferred about "doing
philosophy from the inside out?"
a) Murphy was the first philosopher to employ such an
b) It allows no place for rational argument in the
formation of ethical principles.
c) It is fundamentally different from the practice of
d) It is designed to dismiss objections to the "simple
6) A school board is debating whether or not to
institute a dress code for the school's students. According
to Murphy, the best way to come to an ethical decision
would be to:
a) consult the fundamental beliefs of the board
b) analyze the results of dress codes instituted at
c) survey the students as to whether or not they would
prefer a dress code.
d) determine whether or note a dress code has ever
been instituted in the school's history.
Agonistic behavior, or aggression, is exhibited by most of
the more than three million species of animals on this
planet. Animal behaviorists still disagree on a
comprehensive definition of the term, hut aggressive
behavior can be loosely described as any action that harms
an adversary or compels it to retreat. Aggression may serve
many purposes, such as Food gathering, establishing
territory, and enforcing social hierarchy. In a general
Darwinian sense, however, the purpose of aggressive behavior
is to increase the individual animal’s—and thus, the
species’—chance of survival.
Aggressive behavior may he directed at animals of other
species, or it may be conspecific—that is, directed at
members of an animal’s own species. One of the most common
examples of conspecific aggression occurs in the
establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies. In a
hierarchy, social dominance is usually established according
to physical superiority; the classic example is that of a
pecking order among domestic fowl. The dominance hierarchy
may be viewed as a means of social control that reduces the
incidence of attack within a group. Once established, the
hierarchy is rarely threatened by disputes because the
inferior animal immediately submits when confronted by a
Two basic types of aggressive behavior are common to most
species: attack and defensive threat. Each type involves a
particular pattern of physiological and behavioral
responses, which tends not to vary regardless of the
stimulus that provokes it. For example, the pattern of
attack behavior in cats involves a series of movements, such
as stalking, biting, seizing with the forepaws and
scratching with tile hind legs, that changes very little
regardless of the stimulus—that is, regardless of who or
what the cat is attacking.
The cat’s defensive threat response offers another set of
closely linked physiological and behavioral patterns. The
cardiovascular system begins to pump blood at a faster rate,
in preparation for sudden physical activity. The eves narrow
and the ears flatten against the side of the cat’s head for
protection, and other vulnerable areas of the body such as
the stomach and throat are similarly contracted. Growling or
hissing noises and erect fur also signal defensive threat.
As with the attack response, this pattern of responses is
generated with little variation regardless of the nature of
Are these aggressive patterns of attack and defensive threat
innate, genetically programmed, or are they learned? The
answer seems to be a combination of both. A mouse is
helpless at birth, but by its l2th day of life can assume a
defensive threat position by backing up on its hind legs. By
the time it is one month old, the mouse begins to exhibit
the attack response. Nonetheless, copious evidence suggests
that animals learn and practice aggressive behavior; one
need look no further than the sight of a kitten playing with
a ball of string. All the elements of attack—stalking,
pouncing, biting, and shaking—are part of the game that
prepares the kitten for more serious situations later in life.
7) The passage asserts that animal social hierarchies are
generally stable because:
a) the behavior responses of the group are known by all its
b) the defensive threat posture quickly stops most conflicts.
c) inferior animals usually defer to their physical superior.
d) the need for mutual protection from other species
inhibits conspecific aggression.
8) According to the author, what is the most significant
physiological change undergone by a cat assuming the
defensive threat position?
a) An increase in cardiovascular activity
b) A sudden narrowing of the eyes
c) A contraction of the abdominal muscles
d) The author does not say which change is most significant
9) Based on the information in the passage about agonistic
behavior, it is reasonable to conclude that:
I. the purpose of agonistic behavior is to help ensure the
survival of the species.
II. agonistic behavior is both innate and learned.
III. conspecific aggression is more frequent than i aggression.
a) I only
b) II only
c) I and II only
d) I,II and III only
10) Which of the following would be most in accord with the
information presented in the passage?
a) The aggressive behavior of sharks is closely inked to
their need to remain in constant motion.
b) fine inability of newborn mice to exhibit the attack
response proves that aggressive behavior must be learned.
c) Most animal species that do riot exhibit aggressive
behavior are prevented from doing so by environmental factors.
d) Members of a certain species of hawk use the same method
to prey on both squirrels and gophers.
11) The author suggests that the question of whether
agonistic behavior is genetically programmed or learned:
a) still generates considerable controversy among animal
b) was first investigated through experiments on mice.
c) is outdated since most scientists now believe the genetic
element to be most important.
d) has been the subject of extensive clinical study.
12) Which of the following topics related to agonistic
behavior is NOT explicitly addressed in the passage?
a) The physiological changes that accompany attack behavior
b) The evolutionary purpose of aggression
c) Conspecific aggression that occurs in dominance hierarchies
d) The relationship between play and aggression
13) The author of this passage is primarily concerned with:
a) analyzing the differences between attack behavior and
defensive threat behavior.
b) introducing a subject currently debated among animal
c) providing a general overview of aggressive behavior in
d) illustrating various manifestations of agonistic behavior