Physical, Layer 1 : This layer conveys the bit stream -
electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the
network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides
the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a
carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical
aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with
physical layer components.
Data Link, Layer 2 : At this layer, data packets are
encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission
protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the
physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The
data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media
Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control
(LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on
the network gains access to the data and permission to
transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization,
flow control and error checking.
Network, Layer 3 : This layer provides switching and
routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as
virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node.
Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well
as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion
control and packet sequencing.
Transport, Layer 4 : This layer provides transparent
transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is
responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
It ensures complete data transfer.
Session, Layer 5 : This layer establishes, manages and
terminates connections between applications. The session
layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations,
exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each
end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
Presentation, Layer 6 : This layer provides independence
from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption)
by translating from application to network format, and vice
versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into
the form that the application layer can accept. This layer
formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network,
providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is
sometimes called the syntax layer.
Application, Layer 7 : This layer supports application and
end-user processes. Communication partners are identified,
quality of service is identified, user authentication and
privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax
are identified. Everything at this layer is application-
specific. This layer provides application services for file
transfers, e-mail, and other network software services.
Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the
application level. Tiered application architectures are
part of this layer.
If all of the other layers are working and have been
tested, then this is usually just a matter of applying
patches to software or reinstalling. Everyone probably has
experience troubleshooting problems in windows. Telnet is
an excellent tool for connecting to virtually any port to
check to see if the above layers are functioning properly.
The answer is correct but the procedure is wrong. .
Never ever start from layer 1. . .
Always start from Layer 7 i.e Application Layer to Physical Layer. .
coz its not explain the layers. . its summarize teh steps based on OSI approach. . .
OSI is defined as Open Systems Internetwork.OSI layer is
the backbone of Networking and Networking concept is
dependent on OSI Layer.In OSI layer you will find 7 layers
on source side and 7 layers on destination side.
Presentation layer Application Layer
data link layer Physical Layer
Network layer Session Layer
Transport layer Tansport Layer
session layer Network Layer
physical layer and Datalink Layer
Application layer . Presentation Layer
one can see these 7 layers on Source and destination.
without these 7 layers one cannot access application
layer.Among all these layers Network layers plays a vital
role as without network layer one cannot access
when we enter http://google.com in browser it is a session
layer where we are calling network layer to connect to
htt://www.google.com and to communicate to external network
one requires a lan card which comes under physical layer
and to open session for the typed URL data is transported
from source to desination and viceversa and so defined
www.google.com is an application layer which is the 7th
layer in OSI architechture.Passing through all these layers
one can able to access application layer and can open
session for accessing www.google.com.
How does inter- VLAN communication take place?
A. It takes place through any Cisco router
B. It takes place through a Cisco router that can run ISL
C. It takes place through a router but this disables all the
router a security and filtering functionality for the VLANS
D. For nonroutable protocals (e.g. NetBeui) the router
provides communications between VLAN domains
E. Inter-VLAN communication is not possible because each
VLAN is a separate broadcast domain
Which configuration mode and command combination sets the
bandwidth metric of a Frame Relay connection?
A. router(config)# clock rate 56
B. router(config)# bandwidth 56
C. router(config)# bandwidth 56000
D. router(config)# clock rate 56000
As a system administrator, you perform an extended ping at
the privileged EXEC prompt. As part of the display, you see
"Set DF bit in IP header? [yes] :" What would happen if you
answered no at the prompt.
A. This lets the router fragment the packet.
B. It tells the router not to fragment the packet.
C. This lets the router direct the packet to the destination
it finds in its routing table.
D. It tell the router to send the packet to the next hop
Which is true regarding half duplex Ethernet operation?
A.) Half Duplex ethernet technology provides a transmit
wired directly to the receiver circuit at the other end
B.) Half duplex transmission between stations is achieved by
to multipoint Ethernet and Fast Ethernet
C.) With Half Duplex transmission logically circuits feed
into a single
cable creating a situation similar to a one way bridge
D.) Half Duplex transmission between stations is achieved
using Point to
Point Ethernet & Fast Ethernet
Which statement about Ethernet switches is true?
A. Symmetric switching allows connection between pods of
unlike bandwidth and does not require memory buffering
B. Memory Buffering is used to prevent a bottleneck when
pods of different bandwidth are connected on a symmetric switch
C. The latency can be reduced if the switch utilizes the
store and forward method of switching store and forward is
better for error detection
D. The cut through method of switching is faster because the
switch forwards the packet to the destination as soon as it
reads the destination address