An independent demand is a demand that is not based on the
demand for another item while a dependent demand is based on
the demand for another item.
For example, the demand for chairs of a table and the table
itself is based on the demand for the table. The table in
this example is the item with independent demand. Knowing
this, one can forecast an independent demand while dependent
demands are calculated based on the independent demand item.
Business to business independent demands tend to be demands
for such items as capital goods, office supplies, MRO
(maintenance, repair, and operating) items, and anything
else for which the dependency is unknown. Independent
demands are usually handled with standalone purchase orders,
although some items might be covered by contractual
relationships such as volume, price and other agreements.
1. Principles and Practices of Management
How will you influence people to strive willingly for group
objectives in your organization (target based industry)?
Apply interpersonal influence through communication process
towards attaining your personalized goals?
2. Human Resources Management
The present state of recession in the IT Industry – as a
Human Resource Manager how are you going to undertake Human
Resource Planning to Macro level to tide over the crisis
3. Financial Management
What will your outlook towards maintenance of liquid assets
to ensure that the firm has adequate cash in hands to meet
its obligation at all times?
4. Marketing Management
If you are working in a super market, what techniques/
tools you will use in data collection. How are you going to
analysis the data and make inferences? How will you
finally apply your market research to improve sales and win
5. Organizational Behaviour
If you are made the compaign leader for a particular
political party .How will you use your leader ship skills
to motivate your party men to ensure success of the party
nominee in the elections? (Focus on the individual motivate
and apply leadership style).
6. Principles of Economics
Suppose the price elasticity of demand for the textbooks is
two and the price of the textbook is increased by 10% By
how much does the quantity demand fall? Enter the results
and discuss reason for the fall in quantity demand.
If one always ought to act so as to produce the best
possible circumstances, then morality is extremely
demanding. No one could plausibly claim to have met the
requirements of this "simple principle." . . . It would
seem strange to punish those intending to do good by
sentencing them to an impossible task. Also, if the
standards of right conduct are as extreme as they seem,
then they will preclude the personal projects that humans
find most fulfilling.
From an analytic perspective, the potential extreme demands
of morality are not a "problem." A theory of morality is no
less valid simply because it asks great sacrifices. In
fact, it is difficult to imagine what kind of constraints
could be put on our ethical projects. Shouldn't we reflect
on our base prejudices, and not allow them to provide
boundaries for our moral reasoning? Thus, it is tempting to
simply dismiss the objections to the simple principle.
However, in Demands of Morality, Liam Murphy takes these
objections seriously for at least two distinct reasons.
First, discussion of the simple principle provides an
excellent vehicle for a discussion of morality in general.
Perhaps, in a way, this is Murphy's attempt at doing
philosophy "from the inside out.". . . Second, Murphy's
starting point tells us about the nature of his project.
Murphy must take seriously the collisions between moral
philosophy and our intuitive sense of right and wrong. He
[must do so] because his work is best interpreted as
intended to forge moral principles from our firm beliefs,
and not to proscribe beliefs given a set of moral
[Murphy] argues from our considered judgments rather than
to them. . . For example, Murphy cites our "simple but
firmly held" beliefs as supporting the potency of the over-
demandingness objection, and nowhere in the work can one
find a source of moral values divorced from human
Murphy does not tell us what set of "firm beliefs" we ought
to have. Rather, he speaks to an audience of well-
intentioned but unorganized moral realists, and tries to
give them principles that represent their considered moral
judgments. Murphy starts with this base sense of right and
wrong, but recognizes that it needs to be supplemented by
reason where our intuitions are confused or conflicting.
Perhaps Murphy is looking for the best interpretation of
our convictions, the same way certain legal scholars try to
find the best interpretation of our Constitution.
This approach has disadvantages. Primarily, Murphy's
arguments, even if successful, do not provide the kind of
motivating force for which moral philosophy has
traditionally searched. His work assumes and argues in
terms of an inner sense of morality, and his project seeks
to deepen that sense. Of course, it is quite possible that
the moral viewpoints of humans will not converge, and some
humans have no moral sense at all. Thus, it is very easy
for the moral skeptic to point out a lack of justification
and ignore the entire work.
On the other hand, Murphy's choice of a starting point
avoids many of the problems of moral philosophy. Justifying
the content of moral principles and granting a motivating
force to those principles is an extraordinary task. It
would be unrealistic to expect all discussions of moral
philosophy to derive such justifications. Projects that
attempt such a derivation have value, but they are hard
pressed to produce logical consequences for everyday life.
In the end, Murphy's strategy may have more practical
effect than its first-principle counterparts, which do not
seem any more likely to convince those that would reject
1) The author suggests that the application of
Murphy's philosophy to the situations of two different
a) would help to solve the problems of one group but
not of the other.
b) could result in the derivation of two radically
different moral principles.
c) would be contingent on the two groups sharing the
same fundamental beliefs.
d) could reconcile any differences between the two
2) Suppose an individual who firmly believes in
keeping promises has promised to return a weapon to a
person she knows to be extremely dangerous. According to
Murphy, which of the following, if true, would WEAKEN the
notion that she should return the weapon?
a) She also firmly believes that it is morally wrong
to assist in any way in a potentially violent act.
b) She believes herself to be well-intentioned in
matters of right and wrong.
c) The belief that one should keep promises is shared
by most members of her community.
d) She derived her moral beliefs from first-principle
3) The passage implies that a moral principle derived
from applying Murphy's philosophy to a particular group
would be applicable to another group if:
a) the first group recommended the principle to the
b) the moral viewpoints of the two groups do not
c) the members of the second group have no firmly held
d) the second group shares the same fundamental
beliefs as the first group.
4) According to the passage, the existence of
individuals who entirely lack a moral sense:
a) confirms the notion that moral principles should be
derived from the considered judgments of individuals.
b) suggests a potential disadvantage of Murphy's
c) supports Murphy's belief that reason is necessary
in cases in which intuitions are conflicting or confused.
d) proves that first-principle strategies of ethical
theorizing will have no more influence over the behavior of
individuals than will Murphy's philosophical approach.
5) Which of the following can be inferred about "doing
philosophy from the inside out?"
a) Murphy was the first philosopher to employ such an
b) It allows no place for rational argument in the
formation of ethical principles.
c) It is fundamentally different from the practice of
d) It is designed to dismiss objections to the "simple
6) A school board is debating whether or not to
institute a dress code for the school's students. According
to Murphy, the best way to come to an ethical decision
would be to:
a) consult the fundamental beliefs of the board
b) analyze the results of dress codes instituted at
c) survey the students as to whether or not they would
prefer a dress code.
d) determine whether or note a dress code has ever
been instituted in the school's history.
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now i want to do job please companies who recruit MBA's the
thing is i am not fresher, but now i want do job. suggest